Loading Map
Selected Country
Priority Countries
Other Countries

India - Market Shaping Indicators

View Reall projects in India

India embodies many of the complexities and contradictions of international development. As one of the largest economies in the world, India has experienced sustained growth – fostering a booming information technology sector and rising middle class. As the second most populated country in the world, India is also home to more desperately poor people than all the nations of sub-Saharan Africa combined.

This enduring inequality is reflected in a national urban housing shortage of at least 10 million homes. An estimated 600,000 homes are now required every year in the eight largest cities, versus an annual supply of just 200,000 units. As the share of the population living in urban areas is projected to increase from 34% today to 40% by 2030, demand for affordable housing will escalate further. This housing scarcity represents a crisis if unmet, contributing to negative economic, environmental and social impacts. Alternatively, the huge demand for housing is a unique opportunity for inclusive growth and sustainable development if key stakeholders can deliver at scale for people living on low incomes.

Affordable housing has been the focus of successive governments at the federal and state levels. The incumbent Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) government declared in 2015 that by 2022 – the 75th anniversary of independence – every Indian would have a brick and cement house with gas, water, electricity, and a toilet. The official programme through which this has been delivered is the ambitious Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana (PMAY) scheme. PMAY is structured into separate rural (PMAY-G) and urban (PMAY-U) schemes, each committed to facilitate at least 10 million serviced homes for poor and eligible beneficiaries.

Houses developed through PMAY are heavily subsidised. The BJP government has also taken steps to de-risk the market and promote an enabling environment for private sector delivery, including subsidies to first time buyers and establishing a Real Estate Regulatory Authority (RERA) to co-ordinate the real estate sector. These measures have fostered a more conducive ecosystem, although many bottlenecks remain.

The Covid-19 pandemic has impacted on India’s affordable housing sector in complex ways. Lockdowns and stay-at-home orders disrupted economic activity and reduced GDP significantly in 2020. The housing market contracted throughout the waves of infection in 2020 and 2021. At the same time, the pandemic exposed how millions of urban Indians reside in slums and informal settlements that are congested and lacking in basic sanitation, water, ventilation, and green spaces.

Demand for affordable housing has endured and rebounded, stimulated by repressed demand and the changing requirements of post-pandemic urban life. New residential development has increasingly focused on the mid- and affordable segments, while banks have made institutional housing finance available at reduced interest rates and more affordable terms. As India aspires to become a future economic powerhouse, it must ensure its burgeoning urban population has access to decent housing that is environmentally safe, socially fulfilling, economically affordable and legally secure.

Key Indicators

Displayed In

1. Land & infrastructure

% of urban bottom 40 households without access to basic sanitation services

0.2

Bottom 40 See all MSI countries
Close
Country Year Data Source Value
Cote d'Ivoire 2012 DHS 96.5%
Ghana 2014 DHS 93.15%
Kenya 2014 DHS 88.25%
Morocco 2004 DHS 52.05%
Mozambique 2011 DHS 95.6%
Nigeria 2018 DHS 83.1%
Tanzania 2017 DHS 37%
Uganda 2016 DHS 94.5%
Rwanda 2016 National Institute of Statistics Rwanda (NISR) 13.13%
Pakistan 2018 The DHS Program 2.75%
India 2018 NSSO 76th Round 0.2%

2. Construction & Investment

% of national population living in slums, informal settlements, or inadequate dwellings

35

National See all MSI countries
Close
Country Year Data Source Value
Cote d'Ivoire N/A
Ghana N/A
Kenya N/A
Morocco N/A
Mozambique N/A
Nigeria N/A
Tanzania N/A
Uganda N/A
Rwanda 2018 World Bank 42.1%
Pakistan N/A
India 2018 NSSO 76th Round 35%

3. Sales & Rental

Number of residential mortgages outstanding

9,817,180

National See all MSI countries
Close
Country Year Data Source Value
Kenya 2019 Central Bank of Kenya 27,993
Nigeria 2019 NMRC 32,260
Tanzania 2019 Bank of Tanzania and Tanzania Mortgage Refinance Company Limited 5,460
Rwanda 2020 National Bank of Rwanda (NBR) 44,177
Pakistan 2019 State Bank of Pakistan - Housing Finance Data Review 58,620
India 2020 Reserve Bank of India 9,817,180

3. Sales & Rental

Price of the cheapest, newly built dwelling by a formal developer or contractor

160,000 IN₹$2,176.87

Urban See all MSI countries
Close
Country Year Data Source Value
Cote d'Ivoire 2018 Site d'annonce et promotion dans l'immobilier en Côte d'Ivoire 15,500,000 CFA$27,087.48
Ghana 2019 Damax Construction Co. Ltd 108,704 GH₵$19,621.66
Kenya 2019 Tsavo Real Estate 4,000,000 Ksh$37,037.04
Morocco 2019 Various real estate websites 250,000 DH$27,027.03
Mozambique 2016 Casa Minha 3,418,491 MZ$48,147.76
Nigeria 2019 Millard Fuller Foundation; Shelter Origins 2,900,000 NGN$7,651.72
Tanzania 2018 CAHF 37,966,107 TZS$16,508.58
Uganda 2019 Various property developers 125,000,000 UGX$34,097.11
Rwanda 2020 Marchal Real Estate Developers 10,000,000 R₣$11,119.14
Pakistan 2021 Partners 2,500,000 PKR$14,305.33
India 2022 Real estate websites and industry experts 160,000 IN₹$2,176.87

3. Sales & Rental

% of national households that rent their dwelling

13

National See all MSI countries
Close
Country Year Data Source Value
Ghana 2017 Ghana Statistical Service 28%
Kenya 2019 Central Bank of Kenya, Kenya National Bureau of Statistics, FSD Kenya 35.01%
Morocco 2014 High Commission for Planning; World Bank 18.5%
Nigeria 2018 World Bank; Nigeria National Bureau of Statistics 21.8%
Tanzania 2017 National Bureau of Statistics 80.56%
Uganda 2016 DHS 53.45%
Rwanda 2020 Access to Finance Rwanda (AFR) and National Institute of Statistics Rwanda (NISR) 8.94%
Pakistan 2017 Population and Housing Census 11.53%
India 2018 NSSO 76th Round 13%

5.Enabling Environment

Ease of Doing Business Index Rank: Global

63 out of 190

National See all MSI countries
Close
Country Year Data Source Value
Cote d'Ivoire 2020 World Bank 110
Ghana 2020 World Bank 118
Kenya 2019 World Bank Ease of Doing Business 61
Morocco 2020 World Bank 53
Mozambique 2019 World Bank 74
Nigeria 2020 World Bank 131
Tanzania 2020 World Bank 141
Uganda 2020 World Bank 116
Rwanda 2020 World Bank Ease of Doing Business Indicators 38 out of 190
Pakistan 2020 World Bank Doing Business Indicator 108 out of 190
India 2020 World Bank 63 out of 190

6. Economic Environment

GDP Per Capita

151,760 IN₹$2,064.76

National See all MSI countries
Close
Country Year Data Source Value
Cote d'Ivoire 2018 World Bank 1,024,171 CFA$1,789.82
Ghana 2019 World Bank 11,489 GH₵$2,073.83
Kenya 2018 World Bank 173,272 Ksh$1,604.37
Morocco 2018 World Bank 30,725 DH$3,321.62
Mozambique 2018 World Bank 30,772 MZ$433.41
Nigeria 2018 World Bank 659,159 NGN$1,739.21
Tanzania 2018 National Bureau of Statistics; World Bank 2,297,020 TZS$998.80
Uganda 2018 World Bank 2,357,327 UGX$643.02
Rwanda 2019 World Bank 737,578.59 R₣$820.12
Pakistan 2020 World Bank National Accounts Data 188,900 PKR$1,080.91
India 2020 Ministry of Statistics and Program Implementation 151,760 IN₹$2,064.76

7. Demand

Population Size

1,361,343,000

National See all MSI countries
Close
Country Year Data Source Value
Cote d'Ivoire 2017 World Bank 24,437,469
Ghana 2019 World Bank 30,417,856
Kenya 2017 World Bank 50,221,473
Morocco 2017 World Bank 36,471,769
Mozambique 2018 World Bank 29,495,962
Nigeria 2017 World Bank 190,873,311
Tanzania 2019 World Bank 58,005,463
Uganda 2017 World Bank 41,487,000
Rwanda 2019 World Bank 12,626,950
Pakistan 2020 World Bank National Accounts Data 220,892,331
India 2021 Minsitry of Health and Family Welfare 1,361,343,000
Displayed In

All Indicators

Please enter 3 or more characters to begin search.

You can then click on a result to be taken to the relevant tab.

    The Market Shaping Indicators project is a work in progress. Significant gaps exist in data, which will be filled in future revisions. We would recommend checking back regularly for updates. We are keen to receive any feedback that you have on this Dashboard, which can be sent to [email protected].

    Using the Dashboard

    The indicators are split into 6 key areas, split into the Housing Value Chain: Land & Infrastructure, Construction & Investment, Sales & Rental, Maintenance & Management, Enabling Environment, Economic Environment and Demand, shown in the following tabs. Navigation can either be undertaken by using the tabs, or through the Search box immediately above. Above this, currency indicators can be toggled between USD and local currency.

    Users are able to further interrogate each indicator each indicator through clicking on the arrows to the left of each indicator. This expanded section shows the data elements that are used to produce the overall indicator value, dates of data collection, source details, hyperlinks to the original data where possible, and a breakdown of data quality. The majority of indicators are quality assessed, based on the whether they are: Interpretable; Relevant; Sufficiently Accurate; Representative; Timely; and Accessible. Indicators are scored on each of these criteria using a 1-4 star system, detailed below:

    ☆ – poor

    ☆☆ – moderate

    ☆☆☆ – good

    ☆☆☆☆ – excellent

    Finally, all data can be downloaded for further interrogation. By clicking on Switch to Data View at the top of the screen, users can filter data based on countries and columns, and download in a .csv or .xls file.

    Bottom 40

    Reall targets the Bottom 40% of the urban income pyramid, referred to as the ‘Bottom 40’ or ‘B40’. An objective of the MSI work was to better understand and demonstrate the market from the perspective of households in the Bottom 40, and as such data is aggregated for this group where possible. Data for this group can be particularly challenging to come across. In part, this is due to the difficulties in accurately defining this group using existing data sets. Additionally though, the informality of much of life for lower income groups severely limits data availability, particularly in terms of key data on jobs, housing and relationships with local government. This lack of data is a key blockage for further engagement at the lower end of the housing market, and resolving this is an objective of Reall’s and of the MSI work.

    Aggregations

    Data is shown at various different “aggregations”, which demonstrate the size and location of the population for which the data represents. This varies from national to city level in terms of population groupings. Additional aggregations exist for the Bottom 40, as detailed above, enabling a focused view on the lower end of the market.

    For relevant data, Reall’s partners are also included as an aggregation. This is not meant to be representative of the entire market, but recognises that as practitioners and experts within the lower end of the housing market of each country, their experiences are a useful check on other data sets, and an indication of the value when other data is not available.

    Terms of Use

    Reall Ltd (“Reall”) endeavours to make its data as freely available as possible in order to demonstrate the successes of its model and encourage other actors into the affordable homes movement. Reall provides the user with access to these data free of charge subject to the terms of this agreement.

    Users are encouraged to use the data to benefit themselves and others in creative ways.

    Unless specifically labelled otherwise, you are free to copy, distribute, adapt, display or include the data in other products for commercial or non-commercial purposes for no cost under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, with the additional terms below.  The basic terms may be accessed here. By using or downloading the data, users are agreeing to comply with the terms of a CC BY 4.0 licence, and also agreeing to the following mandatory and binding additions:

    – You agree to provide attribution to Reall in any published use of the data, including but not limited to articles, papers, blogs, books. Usage includes both direct publication of the existing data, along with any analysis undertaken by the user. This attribution should include Reall’s name and the following link – reall.net/dashboard. An electronic copy of all reports and publications based on the data should be shared with Reall ([email protected]).

    – When sharing or facilitating access to the data, you agree to include the same acknowledgement requirement in any sub-licences of the data that you grant, and a requirement that any sub-licences do the same. You may meet this requirement by providing the uniform resource locator (URL) to these terms of use.

    – Some datasets and indicators may be provided by third parties, and may not be redistributed or reused without the consent of the original data provider, or may be subject to additional terms and conditions. Where applicable, third party data is labelled as such, and usage conditions can be found on their respective websites.

    Indicator Data Source Aggregation Year Data Quality Data Accessibility Value
    Regulated minimum size of a residential plot in urban areas in square meters
    i
    The minimum size of a residential plot in urban areas in square meters as per legislation/regulation.
    Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs Bangalore 2021
    No minimum - Up to 30 sqm Carpet Area for an EWS House (Economically Weaker Section) and up to 60 sqm Carpet Area for LIG House (Lower Income Group) are regulated maximums for eligibility through different aspects of the PMAY scheme.
    Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs Mumbai 2021
    No minimum - Upto 30 sqm Carpet Area for an EWS House (Economically Weaker Section) and upto 60 sqm Carpet Area for LIG House (Lower Income Group) are regulated maximums for eligibility through different aspects of the PMAY scheme.
    Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs Ahmedabad 2021
    No minimum - Upto 30 sqm Carpet Area for an EWS House (Economically Weaker Section) and upto 60 sqm Carpet Area for LIG House (Lower Income Group)are regulated maximums for eligibility through different aspects of the PMAY scheme.
    Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs Bhubaneswar 2021
    No minimum - Upto 30 sqm Carpet Area for an EWS House (Economically Weaker Section) and upto 60 sqm Carpet Area for LIG House (Lower Income Group)are regulated maximums for eligibility through different aspects of the PMAY scheme.
    Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs Delhi 2021
    No minimum - Upto 30 sqm Carpet Area for an EWS House (Economically Weaker Section) and upto 60 sqm Carpet Area for LIG House (Lower Income Group)are regulated maximums for eligibility through different aspects of the PMAY scheme.
    Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs Urban 2021
    No minimum - Upto 30 sqm Carpet Area for an EWS House (Economically Weaker Section) and upto 60 sqm Carpet Area for LIG House (Lower Income Group) are regulated maximums for eligibility through different aspects of the PMAY scheme.
    World Bank DBI geographic coverage index score ranking: Africa/Asia
    i
    The rank of the country's score on the World Bank's geographic coverage index within Asia. The geographic coverage index has four components: (1) How complete the coverage of the land registry is at the level of the largest business city. A score of 2 is assigned if all privately held land plots in the city are formally registered at the land registry; 0 if not. (2) How complete the coverage of the land registry is at the level of the economy. A score of 2 is assigned if all privately held land plots in the economy are formally registered at the land registry; 0 if not. (3) How complete the coverage of the mapping agency is at the level of the largest business city. A score of 2 is assigned if all privately held land plots in the city are mapped; 0 if not. (4) How complete the coverage of the mapping agency is at the level of the economy. A score of 2 is assigned if all privately held land plots in the economy are mapped; 0 if not. (5) The index ranges from 0 to 8, with higher values indicating greater geographic coverage in land ownership registration and cadastral mapping.
    World Bank Mumbai 2020
    Tied 31 with 17 countries out of 48
    World Bank Delhi 2020
    Tied 31 with 17 countries out of 48
    World Bank National 2020
    Tied 31 with 15 countries out of 46
    World Bank DBI geographic coverage index score ranking: Global
    i
    The global rank of the country's score on the World Bank's geographic coverage index. The geographic coverage index has four components: (1) How complete the coverage of the land registry is at the level of the largest business city. A score of 2 is assigned if all privately held land plots in the city are formally registered at the land registry; 0 if not. (2) How complete the coverage of the land registry is at the level of the economy. A score of 2 is assigned if all privately held land plots in the economy are formally registered at the land registry; 0 if not. (3) How complete the coverage of the mapping agency is at the level of the largest business city. A score of 2 is assigned if all privately held land plots in the city are mapped; 0 if not. (4) How complete the coverage of the mapping agency is at the level of the economy. A score of 2 is assigned if all privately held land plots in the economy are mapped; 0 if not. The index ranges from 0 to 8, with higher values indicating greater geographic coverage in land ownership registration and cadastral mapping.
    World Bank Mumbai 2020
    Tied 99 with 89 countries out of 188
    World Bank Delhi 2020
    Tied 99 with 89 countries out of 188
    World Bank National 2020
    Tied 99 with 87 countries out of 186
    World Bank DBI quality of land administration index ranking: Africa/Asia
    i
    The rank of the country's score on the World Bank's quality of land administration index within Asia. The quality of land administration index is composed of five other indices: the reliability of infrastructure, transparency of information, geographic coverage, land dispute resolution and equal access to property rights. Data are collected for each economys largest business city.
    World Bank Mumbai 2020
    Tied 30 with 2 countries out of 48
    World Bank Delhi 2020
    Tied 40 with 1 country out of 48
    World Bank National 2020
    33 out of 46
    World Bank DBI quality of land administration index ranking: Global
    i
    The global rank of the country's score on the World Bank's quality of land administration index. The quality of land administration index is composed of five other indices: the reliability of infrastructure, transparency of information, geographic coverage, land dispute resolution and equal access to property rights. Data are collected for each economys largest business city.
    World Bank Mumbai 2020
    Tied 93 with 5 countries out of 188
    World Bank Delhi 2020
    Tied 140 with 4 countries out of 188
    World Bank National 2020
    116 out of 186
    Smallest residential plot size
    i
    The smallest plot size (in square meters) available in a residential development by a developer / contractor. By plot we are referring to the land for a single home, rather than a site development
    Industry experts including developers and realtors Bangalore 2021
    37m2
    Industry experts including developers and realtors Mumbai 2021
    26m2
    Industry experts including developers and realtors Ahmedabad 2021
    44m2
    Industry experts including developers and realtors Bhubaneswar 2021
    75m2
    Industry experts including developers and realtors Delhi 2021
    48m2
    Industry experts including developers and realtors National 2021
    26m2
    Janaadhar India Pvt Limited Janaadhar 2021
    37m2
    Average land costs per m2
    i
    The average cost per square meter of unserviced land that is zoned for residential development in urban areas.
    Local developer and real estate sites Bangalore 2022
    46,805 IN₹$636.80
    Real estate sites Ahmedabad 2022
    47,438 IN₹$645.41
    Real estate sites Bhubaneswar 2022
    12,068 IN₹$164.19
    Real estate sites Delhi 2022
    121,253 IN₹$1,649.70
    Janaadhar India Pvt Limited Janaadhar 2022
    40,000 IN₹$544.22
    % of land for residential development acquired from the private sector
    i
    Percentage of land acquired from the private sector by formal developers / contractors for residential developments in urban areas out of all the land that they acquired for residential developments in urban areas.
    Janaadhar India Pvt Limited Janaadhar 2022
    100.00%
    World Bank DBI transparency of information index ranking: Africa/Asia
    i
    The rank of the country's score on the World Bank's transparency of information index within Asia. The transparency of information index has 10 components: (1) Whether information on land ownership is made publicly available. A score of 1 is assigned if information on land ownership is accessible by anyone; 0 if access is restricted. (2) Whether the list of documents required for completing all types of property transactions is made easily available to the public. A score of 0.5 is assigned if the list of documents is easily accessible online or on a public board; 0 if it is not made available to the public or if it can be obtained only in person. (3) Whether the fee schedule for completing all types of property transactions is made easily available to the public. A score of 0.5 is assigned if the fee schedule is easily accessible online or on a public board free of charge; 0 if it is not made available to the public or if it can be obtained only in person. (4) Whether the immovable property agency formally specifies the time frame to deliver a legally binding document proving property ownership. A score of 0.5 is assigned if such service standard is accessible online or on a public board; 0 if it is not made available to the public or if it can be obtained only in person. (5) Whether there is a specific and independent mechanism for filing complaints about a problem that occurred at the agency in charge of immovable property registration. A score of 1 is assigned if there is a specific and independent mechanism for filing a complaint; 0 if there is only a general mechanism or no mechanism. (6) Whether there are publicly available official statistics tracking the number of transactions at the immovable property registration agency in the largest business city. A score of 0.5 is assigned if statistics are published about property transfers in the largest business city in the past calendar year at the latest on May 1st of the following year; 0 if no such statistics are made publicly available. (7) Whether maps of land plots are made publicly available. A score of 0.5 is assigned if cadastral plans are accessible by anyone; 0 if access is restricted. (8) Whether the fee schedule for accessing cadastral plans is made easily available to the public. A score of 0.5 is assigned if the fee schedule is easily accessible online or on a public board free of charge; 0 if it is not made available to the public or if it can be obtained only in person. (9) Whether the mapping agency formally specifies the time frame to deliver an updated cadastral plan. A score of 0.5 is assigned if the service standard is accessible online or on a public board; 0 if it is not made available to the public or if it can be obtained only in person. (10) Whether there is a specific and independent mechanism for filing complaints about a problem that occurred at the mapping agency. A score of 0.5 is assigned if there is a specific and independent mechanism for filing a complaint; 0 if there is only a general mechanism or no mechanism. The index ranges from 0 to 6, with higher values indicating greater transparency in the land administration system.
    World Bank Mumbai 2020
    Tied 3 with 8 countries out of 48
    World Bank Delhi 2020
    Tied 30 with 9 countries out of 48
    World Bank National 2020
    22 out of 46
    World Bank DBI transparency of information index ranking: Global
    i
    The global rank of the country's score on the World Bank's transparency of information index. The transparency of information index has 10 components: (1) Whether information on land ownership is made publicly available. A score of 1 is assigned if information on land ownership is accessible by anyone; 0 if access is restricted. (2) Whether the list of documents required for completing all types of property transactions is made easily available to the public. A score of 0.5 is assigned if the list of documents is easily accessible online or on a public board; 0 if it is not made available to the public or if it can be obtained only in person. (3) Whether the fee schedule for completing all types of property transactions is made easily available to the public. A score of 0.5 is assigned if the fee schedule is easily accessible online or on a public board free of charge; 0 if it is not made available to the public or if it can be obtained only in person. (4) Whether the immovable property agency formally specifies the time frame to deliver a legally binding document proving property ownership. A score of 0.5 is assigned if such service standard is accessible online or on a public board; 0 if it is not made available to the public or if it can be obtained only in person. (5) Whether there is a specific and independent mechanism for filing complaints about a problem that occurred at the agency in charge of immovable property registration. A score of 1 is assigned if there is a specific and independent mechanism for filing a complaint; 0 if there is only a general mechanism or no mechanism. (6) Whether there are publicly available official statistics tracking the number of transactions at the immovable property registration agency in the largest business city. A score of 0.5 is assigned if statistics are published about property transfers in the largest business city in the past calendar year at the latest on May 1st of the following year; 0 if no such statistics are made publicly available. (7) Whether maps of land plots are made publicly available. A score of 0.5 is assigned if cadastral plans are accessible by anyone; 0 if access is restricted. (8) Whether the fee schedule for accessing cadastral plans is made easily available to the public. A score of 0.5 is assigned if the fee schedule is easily accessible online or on a public board free of charge; 0 if it is not made available to the public or if it can be obtained only in person. (9) Whether the mapping agency formally specifies the time frame to deliver an updated cadastral plan. A score of 0.5 is assigned if the service standard is accessible online or on a public board; 0 if it is not made available to the public or if it can be obtained only in person. (10) Whether there is a specific and independent mechanism for filing complaints about a problem that occurred at the mapping agency. A score of 0.5 is assigned if there is a specific and independent mechanism for filing a complaint; 0 if there is only a general mechanism or no mechanism. The index ranges from 0 to 6, with higher values indicating greater transparency in the land administration system.
    World Bank Mumbai 2020
    Tied 13 with 25 countries out of 188
    World Bank Delhi 2020
    Tied 106 with 21 countries out of 188
    World Bank National 2020
    80 out of 186
    Number of procedures to register residential property
    i
    The number of procedures to register residential property. Assumptions about the sellers property: Is fully owned by the seller. Has no mortgages attached and has been under the same ownership for the past 10 years. Is registered in the land registry or cadastre, or both, and is free of title disputes. Is located in an urban residential zone and no rezoning is required. The property, consisting of land and a dwelling, will be transferred in its entirety. The dwelling is in good condition, complies with all safety standards, building codes and other legal requirements. The property will not be subject to renovations or additional construction following the purchase. Has no trees, natural water sources, natural reserves or historical monuments of any kind. Will not be used for special purposes, and no special permits are required. Has no occupants, and no other party holds a legal interest in it. Assumptions about procedures: A procedure is defined as any interaction of the buyer, the seller or their agents (if an agent is legally or in practice required) with external parties, including government agencies, inspectors, public notaries, architects, surveyors, among others. Interactions between company officers and employees are not considered. All procedures that are legally or in practice required for registering property are recorded, even if they may be avoided in exceptional cases. Each electronic procedure is counted as a separate procedure. Payment of capital gains tax can be counted as a separate procedure. If a procedure can be accelerated legally for an additional cost, the fastest procedure is chosen if that option is used by the majority of property owners. Although the buyer may use lawyers or other professionals where necessary in the registration process, it is assumed that the buyer does not employ an outside facilitator in the registration process unless legally or in practice required to do so.
    World Bank Bangalore 2009
    5
    World Bank Mumbai 2009
    5
    World Bank Ahmedabad 2009
    5
    World Bank Bhubaneswar 2009
    6
    World Bank Delhi 2009
    5
    Janaadhar India Pvt Limited Janaadhar 2022
    5
    Name of residential property registration procedure that takes the longest to complete
    i
    The name of the procedure that takes the longest to complete out of all procedures required to register residential property. Assumptions about the sellers property: Is fully owned by the seller. Has no mortgages attached and has been under the same ownership for the past 10 years. Is registered in the land registry or cadastre, or both, and is free of title disputes. Is located in an urban residential zone and no rezoning is required. The property, consisting of land and a dwelling, will be transferred in its entirety. The dwelling is in good condition, complies with all safety standards, building codes and other legal requirements. The property will not be subject to renovations or additional construction following the purchase. Has no trees, natural water sources, natural reserves or historical monuments of any kind. Will not be used for special purposes, and no special permits are required. Has no occupants, and no other party holds a legal interest in it. Assumptions about procedures: A procedure is defined as any interaction of the buyer, the seller or their agents (if an agent is legally or in practice required) with external parties, including government agencies, inspectors, public notaries, architects, surveyors, among others. Interactions between company officers and employees are not considered. All procedures that are legally or in practice required for registering property are recorded, even if they may be avoided in exceptional cases. Each electronic procedure is counted as a separate procedure. Payment of capital gains tax can be counted as a separate procedure. If a procedure can be accelerated legally for an additional cost, the fastest procedure is chosen if that option is used by the majority of property owners. Although the buyer may use lawyers or other professionals where necessary in the registration process, it is assumed that the buyer does not employ an outside facilitator in the registration process unless legally or in practice required to do so. Assumptions about time: Time is recorded in calendar days. The measure captures the median duration that property lawyers, notaries or registry officials indicate is necessary to complete a procedure. It is assumed that the minimum time required for each procedure is one day, except for procedures that can be fully completed online, for which the time required is recorded as half a day. Although procedures may take place simultaneously, they cannot start on the same day (again except for procedures that can be fully completed online). It is assumed that the buyer does not waste time and commits to completing each remaining procedure without delay. If a procedure can be accelerated for an additional cost, the fastest legal procedure available and used by the majority of property owners is chosen. It is assumed that the parties involved are aware of all requirements and their sequence from the beginning. Time spent on gathering information is not considered. If time estimates differ among sources, the median reported value is used.
    World Bank Bangalore 2009
    Apply to the Circle Revenue Office for mutation of the property title (State)
    World Bank Mumbai 2009
    Apply to the Survey and Land Records Office for mutation of the title of the property (State)
    World Bank Ahmedabad 2009
    Apply to the Revenue City Survey Department for mutation of the property title (State)
    World Bank Bhubaneswar 2009
    Apply to the Circle Revenue Office for mutation of the property title (State)
    World Bank Delhi 2009
    Apply to the Circle Revenue Office for mutation of the property title (State)
    Janaadhar India Pvt Limited Janaadhar 2022
    Title Due Diligence
    Time to register residential property (days)
    i
    The total time taken in days to complete all of the procedures required to register residential property. Assumptions about the sellers property: Is fully owned by the seller. Has no mortgages attached and has been under the same ownership for the past 10 years. Is registered in the land registry or cadastre, or both, and is free of title disputes. Is located in an urban residential zone and no rezoning is required. The property, consisting of land and a dwelling, will be transferred in its entirety. The dwelling is in good condition, complies with all safety standards, building codes and other legal requirements. The property will not be subject to renovations or additional construction following the purchase. Has no trees, natural water sources, natural reserves or historical monuments of any kind. Will not be used for special purposes, and no special permits are required. Has no occupants, and no other party holds a legal interest in it. Assumptions about procedures: A procedure is defined as any interaction of the buyer, the seller or their agents (if an agent is legally or in practice required) with external parties, including government agencies, inspectors, public notaries, architects, surveyors, among others. Interactions between company officers and employees are not considered. All procedures that are legally or in practice required for registering property are recorded, even if they may be avoided in exceptional cases. Each electronic procedure is counted as a separate procedure. Payment of capital gains tax can be counted as a separate procedure. If a procedure can be accelerated legally for an additional cost, the fastest procedure is chosen if that option is used by the majority of property owners. Although the buyer may use lawyers or other professionals where necessary in the registration process, it is assumed that the buyer does not employ an outside facilitator in the registration process unless legally or in practice required to do so. Assumptions about time: Time is recorded in calendar days. The measure captures the median duration that property lawyers, notaries or registry officials indicate is necessary to complete a procedure. It is assumed that the minimum time required for each procedure is one day, except for procedures that can be fully completed online, for which the time required is recorded as half a day. Although procedures may take place simultaneously, they cannot start on the same day (again except for procedures that can be fully completed online). It is assumed that the buyer does not waste time and commits to completing each remaining procedure without delay. If a procedure can be accelerated for an additional cost, the fastest legal procedure available and used by the majority of property owners is chosen. It is assumed that the parties involved are aware of all requirements and their sequence from the beginning. Time spent on gathering information is not considered. If time estimates differ among sources, the median reported value is used.
    World Bank Bangalore 2009
    28
    World Bank Mumbai 2009
    44
    World Bank Ahmedabad 2009
    42
    World Bank Bhubaneswar 2009
    126
    World Bank Delhi 2009
    55
    Janaadhar India Pvt Limited Janaadhar 2022
    30+
    Cost to register residential property
    i
    The total cost to register residential property as a percentage of the value of the property. Assumptions about the sellers property: Is fully owned by the seller. Has no mortgages attached and has been under the same ownership for the past 10 years. Is registered in the land registry or cadastre, or both, and is free of title disputes. Is located in an urban residential zone and no rezoning is required. The property, consisting of land and a dwelling, will be transferred in its entirety. The dwelling is in good condition, complies with all safety standards, building codes and other legal requirements. The property will not be subject to renovations or additional construction following the purchase. Has no trees, natural water sources, natural reserves or historical monuments of any kind. Will not be used for special purposes, and no special permits are required. Has no occupants, and no other party holds a legal interest in it. Assumptions about procedures: A procedure is defined as any interaction of the buyer, the seller or their agents (if an agent is legally or in practice required) with external parties, including government agencies, inspectors, public notaries, architects, surveyors, among others. Interactions between company officers and employees are not considered. All procedures that are legally or in practice required for registering property are recorded, even if they may be avoided in exceptional cases. Each electronic procedure is counted as a separate procedure. Payment of capital gains tax can be counted as a separate procedure. If a procedure can be accelerated legally for an additional cost, the fastest procedure is chosen if that option is used by the majority of property owners. Although the buyer may use lawyers or other professionals where necessary in the registration process, it is assumed that the buyer does not employ an outside facilitator in the registration process unless legally or in practice required to do so. Assumptions about time: Time is recorded in calendar days. The measure captures the median duration that property lawyers, notaries or registry officials indicate is necessary to complete a procedure. It is assumed that the minimum time required for each procedure is one day, except for procedures that can be fully completed online, for which the time required is recorded as half a day. Although procedures may take place simultaneously, they cannot start on the same day (again except for procedures that can be fully completed online). It is assumed that the buyer does not waste time and commits to completing each remaining procedure without delay. If a procedure can be accelerated for an additional cost, the fastest legal procedure available and used by the majority of property owners is chosen. It is assumed that the parties involved are aware of all requirements and their sequence from the beginning. Time spent on gathering information is not considered. If time estimates differ among sources, the median reported value is used. Assumptions about the cost of the property: Cost is recorded as a percentage of the property value, assumed to be equivalent to 50 times income per capita. Only official costs required by law are recorded, including fees, transfer taxes, stamp duties and any other payment to the property registry, notaries, public agencies or lawyers. Other taxes, such as capital gains tax or value added tax (VAT), are excluded from the cost measure. However, in economies where transfer tax can be substituted by VAT, transfer tax will be recorded instead. Both costs borne by the buyer and the seller are included. If cost estimates differ among sources, the median reported value is used.
    World Bank Bangalore 2009
    9.20%
    World Bank Mumbai 2009
    7.40%
    World Bank Ahmedabad 2009
    7.00%
    World Bank Bhubaneswar 2009
    7.50%
    World Bank Delhi 2009
    7.50%
    Janaadhar India Pvt Limited Janaadhar 2022
    5-10%
    % of households without access to improved drinking water services
    i
    The share of households without access to improved drinking water services. According to DHS 7, these include: piped into dwelling piped to yard/plot; public tap/standpipe; piped to neighbour; tube well or borehole; protected well; protected spring; rainwater; tanker truck, cart with small tank; bottled water
    NSSO 76th Round Bangalore 2018
    0.00%
    NSSO 76th Round Mumbai 2018
    0.00%
    NSSO 76th Round Ahmedabad 2018
    0.00%
    NSSO 76th Round Bhubaneswar 2018
    0.00%
    NSSO 76th Round Delhi 2018
    0.00%