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Uganda - Market Shaping Indicators

View Reall projects in Uganda

As a priority country, Reall has been engaged in Uganda since 2014, partnering with Enterprise Housing Development Uganda (EHDU). In 2020, Reall initiated a new partnership with Smart Havens Africa (SHA). Smart Havens brings a significant track record in creating women’s access to employment and property and in green and climate smart technologies. Uganda has also been one of CAHF’s priority countries since 2015 and has collaborated with FSD Uganda (FSDU) across research programmes. Together with the yearbook profile, CAHF’s research in Uganda is an important input into the broader Data Agenda work in Uganda—identifying key gaps in housing market data that would help create a better understanding of the housing ecosystem, for more targeted interventions and policy.

Country Overview

Housing provision remains one of the most pervasive challenges faced by over two-thirds of Uganda’s population. For low income households, which account for more than 60 percent of urban households in Uganda, the formal housing economy is inaccessible. The country has a housing shortage of approximately 2.4 million units, and produces 60 000 housing units against a demand of 200 000 housing units a year. Access to affordable housing is exacerbated by insecure urban land tenure, mushrooming informal settlements, high costs of rental housing. High mortgage interest rates (currently at 17 percent), and the need for bankable collateral pose serious hurdles for low income households to access formal mortgage loans and therefore adequate housing. A great proportion of housing in Uganda is therefore self-provided and often constructed incrementally. Poorer households tend to occupy low quality units such as single-room dwellings of less than 10m2, at average monthly rents of USh150 000 (US$40) and below. The country is largely characterised by private-sector led housing development, which is unable to meet the growing demand for affordable housing.

State of Housing Data

For prospective investors, key public institutions including the Bank of Uganda and Uganda Bureau of Statistics usually disseminate data on the housing finance sector, and these are the most reliable sources of information. Bank of Uganda provides economic data and reports on the performance of financial and non-financial institutions and private sector credit ¹. Uganda Bureau of Statistics publishes quarterly and annual reports with data and information on household incomes, poverty rates, housing conditions and residential prices ². Information about mortgage lending and related market and population dynamics are published on a quarterly and yearly basis by these institutions, augmented by other government ministries, departments and agencies and non-state special-interest organisations.

Accessing hard data on mortgage rates, numbers, housing stock, costs of construction and housing prices for research purposes from financial institutions and other actors is by way of formal requests through bureaucratic systems. There are significant data gaps that hinder understanding of property transactions, access to finance and mortgage credit. There is also a lack of downloadable data from real estate, property and other private sector institution websites. Critical land assembly data published by the Ministry of Land, Housing and Urban Development is often outdated, limiting understanding of the government’s commitment to housing provision, as well as the formality of the housing sector.

Accessible, timely and credible data is critical for informing policy and investment decisions in Uganda’s housing sector. The Bank of Uganda could be an alternative data provider for accessing important income and transaction data through banks and credit bureaus. Data relating to housing sector formality should be presented in an accessible format and be frequently updated, allowing for improved public understanding of the processes involved in, for example, property registration and title deed access. The publication of nationally representative data would avoid sampling bias caused by an over reliance on private sector sources.

Text on this page is based on the MSI Uganda Country Profile ³, drawn from Centre for Affordable Housing Finance (2020). Housing Finance in Africa Yearbook: 11th Edition 2020 , with additional content from CAHF and Reall.

Key Indicators

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1. Land & Infrastructure

% of urban bottom 40 households without access to basic sanitation services

94.5

Bottom 40 See all MSI countries
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Country Year Data Source Value
Cote d'Ivoire 2012 DHS 96.5%
Ghana 2014 DHS 93.15%
Kenya 2014 DHS 88.25%
Morocco 2004 DHS 52.05%
Mozambique 2011 DHS 95.6%
Nigeria 2018 DHS 83.1%
Tanzania 2017 DHS 37%
Uganda 2016 DHS 94.5%
Rwanda 2016 National Institute of Statistics Rwanda (NISR) 13.13%
Pakistan 2018 The DHS Program 2.75%
India 2018 NSSO 76th Round 0.2%

2. Construction & Investment

% of urban population living in slums, informal settlements, or inadequate dwellings

Close
Country Year Data Source Value
Cote d'Ivoire N/A
Ghana N/A
Kenya N/A
Morocco N/A
Mozambique N/A
Nigeria N/A
Tanzania N/A
Uganda N/A
Rwanda 2018 World Bank 42.1%
Pakistan N/A
India 2018 NSSO 76th Round 35%

3. Sales & Rental

Price of the cheapest, newly built dwelling by a formal developer or contractor

125,000,000 UGX$34,097.11

Urban See all MSI countries
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Country Year Data Source Value
Cote d'Ivoire 2018 Site d'annonce et promotion dans l'immobilier en Côte d'Ivoire 15,500,000 CFA$27,087.48
Ghana 2019 Damax Construction Co. Ltd 108,704 GH₵$19,621.66
Kenya 2019 Tsavo Real Estate 4,000,000 Ksh$37,037.04
Morocco 2019 Various real estate websites 250,000 DH$27,027.03
Mozambique 2016 Casa Minha 3,418,491 MZ$48,147.76
Nigeria 2019 Millard Fuller Foundation; Shelter Origins 2,900,000 NGN$7,651.72
Tanzania 2018 CAHF 37,966,107 TZS$16,508.58
Uganda 2019 Various property developers 125,000,000 UGX$34,097.11
Rwanda 2020 Marchal Real Estate Developers 10,000,000 R₣$11,119.14
Pakistan 2021 Partners 2,500,000 PKR$14,305.33
India 2022 Real estate websites and industry experts 160,000 IN₹$2,176.87

3. Sales & Rental

% of national households that rent their dwelling

53.45

National See all MSI countries
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Country Year Data Source Value
Ghana 2017 Ghana Statistical Service 28%
Kenya 2019 Central Bank of Kenya, Kenya National Bureau of Statistics, FSD Kenya 35.01%
Morocco 2014 High Commission for Planning; World Bank 18.5%
Nigeria 2018 World Bank; Nigeria National Bureau of Statistics 21.8%
Tanzania 2017 National Bureau of Statistics 80.56%
Uganda 2016 DHS 53.45%
Rwanda 2020 Access to Finance Rwanda (AFR) and National Institute of Statistics Rwanda (NISR) 8.94%
Pakistan 2017 Population and Housing Census 11.53%
India 2018 NSSO 76th Round 13%

5. Enabling Environment

Ease of Doing Business Index Rank: Global

116

National See all MSI countries
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Country Year Data Source Value
Cote d'Ivoire 2020 World Bank 110
Ghana 2020 World Bank 118
Kenya 2019 World Bank Ease of Doing Business 61
Morocco 2020 World Bank 53
Mozambique 2019 World Bank 74
Nigeria 2020 World Bank 131
Tanzania 2020 World Bank 141
Uganda 2020 World Bank 116
Rwanda 2020 World Bank Ease of Doing Business Indicators 38 out of 190
Pakistan 2020 World Bank Doing Business Indicator 108 out of 190
India 2020 World Bank 63 out of 190

6. Economic Environment

GDP Per Capita

2,357,327 UGX$643.02

National See all MSI countries
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Country Year Data Source Value
Cote d'Ivoire 2018 World Bank 1,024,171 CFA$1,789.82
Ghana 2019 World Bank 11,489 GH₵$2,073.83
Kenya 2018 World Bank 173,272 Ksh$1,604.37
Morocco 2018 World Bank 30,725 DH$3,321.62
Mozambique 2018 World Bank 30,772 MZ$433.41
Nigeria 2018 World Bank 659,159 NGN$1,739.21
Tanzania 2018 National Bureau of Statistics; World Bank 2,297,020 TZS$998.80
Uganda 2018 World Bank 2,357,327 UGX$643.02
Rwanda 2019 World Bank 737,578.59 R₣$820.12
Pakistan 2020 World Bank National Accounts Data 188,900 PKR$1,080.91
India 2020 Ministry of Statistics and Program Implementation 151,760 IN₹$2,064.76

7. Demand

Population Size

41,487,000

National See all MSI countries
Close
Country Year Data Source Value
Cote d'Ivoire 2017 World Bank 24,437,469
Ghana 2019 World Bank 30,417,856
Kenya 2017 World Bank 50,221,473
Morocco 2017 World Bank 36,471,769
Mozambique 2018 World Bank 29,495,962
Nigeria 2017 World Bank 190,873,311
Tanzania 2019 World Bank 58,005,463
Uganda 2017 World Bank 41,487,000
Rwanda 2019 World Bank 12,626,950
Pakistan 2020 World Bank National Accounts Data 220,892,331
India 2021 Minsitry of Health and Family Welfare 1,361,343,000
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All Indicators

Please enter 3 or more characters to begin search.

You can then click on a result to be taken to the relevant tab.

    The Market Shaping Indicators project is a work in progress. Significant gaps exist in data, which will be filled in future revisions. We would recommend checking back regularly for updates. We are keen to receive any feedback that you have on this Dashboard, which can be sent to [email protected].

    Using the Dashboard

    The indicators are split into 6 key areas, split into the Housing Value Chain: Land & Infrastructure, Construction & Investment, Sales & Rental, Maintenance & Management, Enabling Environment, Economic Environment and Demand, shown in the following tabs. Navigation can either be undertaken by using the tabs, or through the Search box immediately above. Above this, currency indicators can be toggled between USD and local currency.

    Users are able to further interrogate each indicator each indicator through clicking on the arrows to the left of each indicator. This expanded section shows the data elements that are used to produce the overall indicator value, dates of data collection, source details, hyperlinks to the original data where possible, and a breakdown of data quality. The majority of indicators are quality assessed, based on the whether they are: Interpretable; Relevant; Sufficiently Accurate; Representative; Timely; and Accessible. Indicators are scored on each of these criteria using a 1-4 star system, detailed below:

    ☆ – poor

    ☆☆ – moderate

    ☆☆☆ – good

    ☆☆☆☆ – excellent

    Finally, all data can be downloaded for further interrogation. By clicking on Switch to Data View at the top of the screen, users can filter data based on countries and columns, and download in a .csv or .xls file.

    Bottom 40

    Reall targets the Bottom 40% of the urban income pyramid, referred to as the ‘Bottom 40’ or ‘B40’. An objective of the MSI work was to better understand and demonstrate the market from the perspective of households in the Bottom 40, and as such data is aggregated for this group where possible. Data for this group can be particularly challenging to come across. In part, this is due to the difficulties in accurately defining this group using existing data sets. Additionally though, the informality of much of life for lower income groups severely limits data availability, particularly in terms of key data on jobs, housing and relationships with local government. This lack of data is a key blockage for further engagement at the lower end of the housing market, and resolving this is an objective of Reall’s and of the MSI work.

    Aggregations

    Data is shown at various different “aggregations”, which demonstrate the size and location of the population for which the data represents. This varies from national to city level in terms of population groupings. Additional aggregations exist for the Bottom 40, as detailed above, enabling a focused view on the lower end of the market.

    For relevant data, Reall’s partners are also included as an aggregation. This is not meant to be representative of the entire market, but recognises that as practitioners and experts within the lower end of the housing market of each country, their experiences are a useful check on other data sets, and an indication of the value when other data is not available.

    Terms of Use

    Reall Ltd (“Reall”) endeavours to make its data as freely available as possible in order to demonstrate the successes of its model and encourage other actors into the affordable homes movement. Reall provides the user with access to these data free of charge subject to the terms of this agreement.

    Users are encouraged to use the data to benefit themselves and others in creative ways.

    Unless specifically labelled otherwise, you are free to copy, distribute, adapt, display or include the data in other products for commercial or non-commercial purposes for no cost under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, with the additional terms below.  The basic terms may be accessed here. By using or downloading the data, users are agreeing to comply with the terms of a CC BY 4.0 licence, and also agreeing to the following mandatory and binding additions:

    – You agree to provide attribution to Reall in any published use of the data, including but not limited to articles, papers, blogs, books. Usage includes both direct publication of the existing data, along with any analysis undertaken by the user. This attribution should include Reall’s name and the following link – reall.net/dashboard. An electronic copy of all reports and publications based on the data should be shared with Reall ([email protected]).

    – When sharing or facilitating access to the data, you agree to include the same acknowledgement requirement in any sub-licences of the data that you grant, and a requirement that any sub-licences do the same. You may meet this requirement by providing the uniform resource locator (URL) to these terms of use.

    – Some datasets and indicators may be provided by third parties, and may not be redistributed or reused without the consent of the original data provider, or may be subject to additional terms and conditions. Where applicable, third party data is labelled as such, and usage conditions can be found on their respective websites.

    Land

    The provision of affordable housing in Uganda has been significantly affected by land governance challenges. This is exacerbated by an unregulated urban land market, driven by speculation, resulting in inflated land prices. Uganda scores low (ranking 135 out of 190) in the quality of land administration index, which is composed of the reliability of infrastructure, transparency of information, geographic coverage, land dispute resolution and equal access to property rights.

    Infrastructure

    Transport is a key expenditure item for most households, and is exacerbated by urban sprawl and poor accessibility to urban centres. Nationally, households spend approximately 14 percent of their income on transport. However, this does not capture the spatial and income inequality often felt by poorer households living in cities (which also impacts mortgage affordability).

    A lack of access to basic services reflects the poor living and housing conditions of most Ugandans, whose access is significantly reduced as you move downmarket. In 2017, the proportion of the population living in households without access to basic drinking water and sanitation services was 51 and 57 percent, respectively. In contrast, 57 percent and 82 percent of the urban bottom 40 of the population were reported to have no access to drinking water and sanitation services. Almost all (97 percent) urban bottom 40 households had no access to electricity in their homes in 2016.

    There have, however, been efforts to address access to housing conditions and affordability. Government assistance has focused on developing crucial housing-related infrastructure. This includes power supply, piped water supply, sanitation and solid waste management. By the end of 2019, the state-owned National Water and Sewerage Corporation had increased piped water supply coverage, reaching approximately eight million people in 280 urban areas, close to 100 percent coverage of the country’s urban population, a significant improvement over the previous three years.

    Of the 23 indicators in this group, 9 are currently populated.

    Indicator Data Source Aggregation Year Data Quality Data Accessibility Value
    Regulated minimum size of a residential plot in urban areas in square meters
    i
    The minimum size of a residential plot in urban areas in square meters as per legislation/regulation.
    Ministry of Land, Housing and Urban Development Urban 2019
    200
    % of land for residential development acquired from the private sector
    i
    Percentage of land acquired from the private sector by formal developers / contractors for residential developments in urban areas out of all the land that they acquired for residential developments in urban areas.
    Smart Havens Africa Smart Havens Africa 2020 Not rated Not rated 100.00%
    Number of procedures to register residential property Smart Havens Africa Smart Havens Africa 2019 Not rated Not rated 12
    Name of residential property registration procedure that takes the longest to complete
    i
    The name of the procedure that takes the longest to complete out of all procedures required to register residential property. Assumptions about the sellers property: Is fully owned by the seller. Has no mortgages attached and has been under the same ownership for the past 10 years. Is registered in the land registry or cadastre, or both, and is free of title disputes. Is located in an urban residential zone and no rezoning is required. The property, consisting of land and a dwelling, will be transferred in its entirety. The dwelling is in good condition, complies with all safety standards, building codes and other legal requirements. The property will not be subject to renovations or additional construction following the purchase. Has no trees, natural water sources, natural reserves or historical monuments of any kind. Will not be used for special purposes, and no special permits are required. Has no occupants, and no other party holds a legal interest in it. Assumptions about procedures: A procedure is defined as any interaction of the buyer, the seller or their agents (if an agent is legally or in practice required) with external parties, including government agencies, inspectors, public notaries, architects, surveyors, among others. Interactions between company officers and employees are not considered. All procedures that are legally or in practice required for registering property are recorded, even if they may be avoided in exceptional cases. Each electronic procedure is counted as a separate procedure. Payment of capital gains tax can be counted as a separate procedure. If a procedure can be accelerated legally for an additional cost, the fastest procedure is chosen if that option is used by the majority of property owners. Although the buyer may use lawyers or other professionals where necessary in the registration process, it is assumed that the buyer does not employ an outside facilitator in the registration process unless legally or in practice required to do so. Assumptions about time: Time is recorded in calendar days. The measure captures the median duration that property lawyers, notaries or registry officials indicate is necessary to complete a procedure. It is assumed that the minimum time required for each procedure is one day, except for procedures that can be fully completed online, for which the time required is recorded as half a day. Although procedures may take place simultaneously, they cannot start on the same day (again except for procedures that can be fully completed online). It is assumed that the buyer does not waste time and commits to completing each remaining procedure without delay. If a procedure can be accelerated for an additional cost, the fastest legal procedure available and used by the majority of property owners is chosen. It is assumed that the parties involved are aware of all requirements and their sequence from the beginning. Time spent on gathering information is not considered. If time estimates differ among sources, the median reported value is used.
    Smart Havens Africa Smart Havens Africa 2019 Not rated Not rated Exchange of Completion Documents
    Time to register residential property (days)
    i
    The total time taken in days to complete all of the procedures required to register residential property. Assumptions about the sellers property: Is fully owned by the seller. Has no mortgages attached and has been under the same ownership for the past 10 years. Is registered in the land registry or cadastre, or both, and is free of title disputes. Is located in an urban residential zone and no rezoning is required. The property, consisting of land and a dwelling, will be transferred in its entirety. The dwelling is in good condition, complies with all safety standards, building codes and other legal requirements. The property will not be subject to renovations or additional construction following the purchase. Has no trees, natural water sources, natural reserves or historical monuments of any kind. Will not be used for special purposes, and no special permits are required. Has no occupants, and no other party holds a legal interest in it. Assumptions about procedures: A procedure is defined as any interaction of the buyer, the seller or their agents (if an agent is legally or in practice required) with external parties, including government agencies, inspectors, public notaries, architects, surveyors, among others. Interactions between company officers and employees are not considered. All procedures that are legally or in practice required for registering property are recorded, even if they may be avoided in exceptional cases. Each electronic procedure is counted as a separate procedure. Payment of capital gains tax can be counted as a separate procedure. If a procedure can be accelerated legally for an additional cost, the fastest procedure is chosen if that option is used by the majority of property owners. Although the buyer may use lawyers or other professionals where necessary in the registration process, it is assumed that the buyer does not employ an outside facilitator in the registration process unless legally or in practice required to do so. Assumptions about time: Time is recorded in calendar days. The measure captures the median duration that property lawyers, notaries or registry officials indicate is necessary to complete a procedure. It is assumed that the minimum time required for each procedure is one day, except for procedures that can be fully completed online, for which the time required is recorded as half a day. Although procedures may take place simultaneously, they cannot start on the same day (again except for procedures that can be fully completed online). It is assumed that the buyer does not waste time and commits to completing each remaining procedure without delay. If a procedure can be accelerated for an additional cost, the fastest legal procedure available and used by the majority of property owners is chosen. It is assumed that the parties involved are aware of all requirements and their sequence from the beginning. Time spent on gathering information is not considered. If time estimates differ among sources, the median reported value is used.
    Smart Havens Africa Smart Havens Africa 2019 Not rated Not rated 61
    % of households without access to improved drinking water services
    i
    The share of households without access to improved drinking water services. According to DHS 7, these include: piped into dwelling piped to yard/plot; public tap/standpipe; piped to neighbour; tube well or borehole; protected well; protected spring; rainwater; tanker truck, cart with small tank; bottled water
    World Bank National 2017
    50.90%
    DHS Bottom 40 2016
    57.30%
    % of households without access to improved sanitation services
    i
    The share of households without access to an improved sanitation facility. According to DHS 7, these include: flush - to piped sewer system; flush - to septic tank; flush - to pit latrine; flush - don't know where; pit latrine - ventilated improved pit (VIP); pit latrine - with slab; composting toilet
    World Bank National 2017
    81.53%
    DHS Bottom 40 2016
    94.50%
    % of households without access to electricity
    i
    The share of households without access to electricity in their dwelling.
    World Bank National 2018
    57.35%
    DHS Bottom 40 2016
    97.45%
    Transport as a % of household expenditure
    i
    Expenditure on transport as a share of total household expenditure.
    Uganda Bureau of Statistics National 2020
    13.78%
    Smallest residential plot size
    i
    The smallest plot size (in square meters) available in a residential development by a developer / contractor.
    - - -
    Average land costs per m2
    i
    The average cost per square meter of unserviced land that is zoned for residential development in urban areas.
    - - -
    World Bank DBI geographic coverage index score ranking: Africa
    i
    The rank of the country's score on the World Bank's geographic coverage index within Africa. The geographic coverage index has four components: (1) How complete the coverage of the land registry is at the level of the largest business city. A score of 2 is assigned if all privately held land plots in the city are formally registered at the land registry; 0 if not. (2) How complete the coverage of the land registry is at the level of the economy. A score of 2 is assigned if all privately held land plots in the economy are formally registered at the land registry; 0 if not. (3) How complete the coverage of the mapping agency is at the level of the largest business city. A score of 2 is assigned if all privately held land plots in the city are mapped; 0 if not. (4) How complete the coverage of the mapping agency is at the level of the economy. A score of 2 is assigned if all privately held land plots in the economy are mapped; 0 if not. (5) The index ranges from 0 to 8, with higher values indicating greater geographic coverage in land ownership registration and cadastral mapping.
    - - -
    World Bank DBI geographic coverage index score ranking: Global
    i
    The global rank of the country's score on the World Bank's geographic coverage index. The geographic coverage index has four components: (1) How complete the coverage of the land registry is at the level of the largest business city. A score of 2 is assigned if all privately held land plots in the city are formally registered at the land registry; 0 if not. (2) How complete the coverage of the land registry is at the level of the economy. A score of 2 is assigned if all privately held land plots in the economy are formally registered at the land registry; 0 if not. (3) How complete the coverage of the mapping agency is at the level of the largest business city. A score of 2 is assigned if all privately held land plots in the city are mapped; 0 if not. (4) How complete the coverage of the mapping agency is at the level of the economy. A score of 2 is assigned if all privately held land plots in the economy are mapped; 0 if not. The index ranges from 0 to 8, with higher values indicating greater geographic coverage in land ownership registration and cadastral mapping.
    - - -
    World Bank DBI quality of land administration index ranking: Africa
    i
    The rank of the country's score on the World Bank's quality of land administration index within Africa. The quality of land administration index is composed of five other indices: the reliability of infrastructure, transparency of information, geographic coverage, land dispute resolution and equal access to property rights. Data are collected for each economys largest business city.
    - - -
    World Bank DBI quality of land administration index ranking: Global
    i
    The global rank of the country's score on the World Bank's quality of land administration index. The quality of land administration index is composed of five other indices: the reliability of infrastructure, transparency of information, geographic coverage, land dispute resolution and equal access to property rights. Data are collected for each economys largest business city.
    - - -
    Total number of residential properties with a title deed
    i
    The total number of residential properties that have a title deed as per the deeds registry.
    - - -
    Cost to register residential property
    i
    The total cost to register residential property as a percentage of the value of the property. Assumptions about the sellers property: Is fully owned by the seller. Has no mortgages attached and has been under the same ownership for the past 10 years. Is registered in the land registry or cadastre, or both, and is free of title disputes. Is located in an urban residential zone and no rezoning is required. The property, consisting of land and a dwelling, will be transferred in its entirety. The dwelling is in good condition, complies with all safety standards, building codes and other legal requirements. The property will not be subject to renovations or additional construction following the purchase. Has no trees, natural water sources, natural reserves or historical monuments of any kind. Will not be used for special purposes, and no special permits are required. Has no occupants, and no other party holds a legal interest in it. Assumptions about procedures: A procedure is defined as any interaction of the buyer, the seller or their agents (if an agent is legally or in practice required) with external parties, including government agencies, inspectors, public notaries, architects, surveyors, among others. Interactions between company officers and employees are not considered. All procedures that are legally or in practice required for registering property are recorded, even if they may be avoided in exceptional cases. Each electronic procedure is counted as a separate procedure. Payment of capital gains tax can be counted as a separate procedure. If a procedure can be accelerated legally for an additional cost, the fastest procedure is chosen if that option is used by the majority of property owners. Although the buyer may use lawyers or other professionals where necessary in the registration process, it is assumed that the buyer does not employ an outside facilitator in the registration process unless legally or in practice required to do so. Assumptions about time: Time is recorded in calendar days. The measure captures the median duration that property lawyers, notaries or registry officials indicate is necessary to complete a procedure. It is assumed that the minimum time required for each procedure is one day, except for procedures that can be fully completed online, for which the time required is recorded as half a day. Although procedures may take place simultaneously, they cannot start on the same day (again except for procedures that can be fully completed online). It is assumed that the buyer does not waste time and commits to completing each remaining procedure without delay. If a procedure can be accelerated for an additional cost, the fastest legal procedure available and used by the majority of property owners is chosen. It is assumed that the parties involved are aware of all requirements and their sequence from the beginning. Time spent on gathering information is not considered. If time estimates differ among sources, the median reported value is used. Assumptions about the cost of the property: Cost is recorded as a percentage of the property value, assumed to be equivalent to 50 times income per capita. Only official costs required by law are recorded, including fees, transfer taxes, stamp duties and any other payment to the property registry, notaries, public agencies or lawyers. Other taxes, such as capital gains tax or value added tax (VAT), are excluded from the cost measure. However, in economies where transfer tax can be substituted by VAT, transfer tax will be recorded instead. Both costs borne by the buyer and the seller are included. If cost estimates differ among sources, the median reported value is used.
    - - -
    World Bank DBI transparency of information index ranking: Africa
    i
    The rank of the country's score on the World Bank's transparency of information index within Africa. The transparency of information index has 10 components: (1) Whether information on land ownership is made publicly available. A score of 1 is assigned if information on land ownership is accessible by anyone; 0 if access is restricted. (2) Whether the list of documents required for completing all types of property transactions is made easily available to the public. A score of 0.5 is assigned if the list of documents is easily accessible online or on a public board; 0 if it is not made available to the public or if it can be obtained only in person. (3) Whether the fee schedule for completing all types of property transactions is made easily available to the public. A score of 0.5 is assigned if the fee schedule is easily accessible online or on a public board free of charge; 0 if it is not made available to the public or if it can be obtained only in person. (4) Whether the immovable property agency formally specifies the time frame to deliver a legally binding document proving property ownership. A score of 0.5 is assigned if such service standard is accessible online or on a public board; 0 if it is not made available to the public or if it can be obtained only in person. (5) Whether there is a specific and independent mechanism for filing complaints about a problem that occurred at the agency in charge of immovable property registration. A score of 1 is assigned if there is a specific and independent mechanism for filing a complaint; 0 if there is only a general mechanism or no mechanism. (6) Whether there are publicly available official statistics tracking the number of transactions at the immovable property registration agency in the largest business city. A score of 0.5 is assigned if statistics are published about property transfers in the largest business city in the past calendar year at the latest on May 1st of the following year; 0 if no such statistics are made publicly available. (7) Whether maps of land plots are made publicly available. A score of 0.5 is assigned if cadastral plans are accessible by anyone; 0 if access is restricted. (8) Whether the fee schedule for accessing cadastral plans is made easily available to the public. A score of 0.5 is assigned if the fee schedule is easily accessible online or on a public board free of charge; 0 if it is not made available to the public or if it can be obtained only in person. (9) Whether the mapping agency formally specifies the time frame to deliver an updated cadastral plan. A score of 0.5 is assigned if the service standard is accessible online or on a public board; 0 if it is not made available to the public or if it can be obtained only in person. (10) Whether there is a specific and independent mechanism for filing complaints about a problem that occurred at the mapping agency. A score of 0.5 is assigned if there is a specific and independent mechanism for filing a complaint; 0 if there is only a general mechanism or no mechanism. The index ranges from 0 to 6, with higher values indicating greater transparency in the land administration system.
    - - -
    World Bank DBI transparency of information index ranking: Global
    i
    The global rank of the country's score on the World Bank's transparency of information index. The transparency of information index has 10 components: (1) Whether information on land ownership is made publicly available. A score of 1 is assigned if information on land ownership is accessible by anyone; 0 if access is restricted. (2) Whether the list of documents required for completing all types of property transactions is made easily available to the public. A score of 0.5 is assigned if the list of documents is easily accessible online or on a public board; 0 if it is not made available to the public or if it can be obtained only in person. (3) Whether the fee schedule for completing all types of property transactions is made easily available to the public. A score of 0.5 is assigned if the fee schedule is easily accessible online or on a public board free of charge; 0 if it is not made available to the public or if it can be obtained only in person. (4) Whether the immovable property agency formally specifies the time frame to deliver a legally binding document proving property ownership. A score of 0.5 is assigned if such service standard is accessible online or on a public board; 0 if it is not made available to the public or if it can be obtained only in person. (5) Whether there is a specific and independent mechanism for filing complaints about a problem that occurred at the agency in charge of immovable property registration. A score of 1 is assigned if there is a specific and independent mechanism for filing a complaint; 0 if there is only a general mechanism or no mechanism. (6) Whether there are publicly available official statistics tracking the number of transactions at the immovable property registration agency in the largest business city. A score of 0.5 is assigned if statistics are published about property transfers in the largest business city in the past calendar year at the latest on May 1st of the following year; 0 if no such statistics are made publicly available. (7) Whether maps of land plots are made publicly available. A score of 0.5 is assigned if cadastral plans are accessible by anyone; 0 if access is restricted. (8) Whether the fee schedule for accessing cadastral plans is made easily available to the public. A score of 0.5 is assigned if the fee schedule is easily accessible online or on a public board free of charge; 0 if it is not made available to the public or if it can be obtained only in person. (9) Whether the mapping agency formally specifies the time frame to deliver an updated cadastral plan. A score of 0.5 is assigned if the service standard is accessible online or on a public board; 0 if it is not made available to the public or if it can be obtained only in person. (10) Whether there is a specific and independent mechanism for filing complaints about a problem that occurred at the mapping agency. A score of 0.5 is assigned if there is a specific and independent mechanism for filing a complaint; 0 if there is only a general mechanism or no mechanism. The index ranges from 0 to 6, with higher values indicating greater transparency in the land administration system.
    - - -
    % of residential development projects where developers are paying for bulk infrastructure or the building of roads
    i
    The share of site-based residential development projects in urban areas that are currently ongoing and have not yet been completed where the developer has had to provide bulk infrastructure or build roads. This indicator does not include projects where construction occurred on multiple individual plots in an existing community. Bulk infrastructure includes the provision of electrical and water mains connections to a site/plot. Road building includes all roads built to connect to a municipal roadway.
    - - -
    % of households living in dwellings built using durable building materials (walls and roof) with inadequate services
    i
    The share of households living in dwellings where the main material of the walls and roof are finished, but the household does not have access to improved water services, improved sanitation facilities, or electricity. The definition of finished materials are as per the latest DHS questionnaire. Some of these may be country specific, but the major categories are standard. In DHS 7, finished wall materials included: cement; stone with lime/cement; bricks; cement blocks; covered adobe; wood planks/shingles. In DHS 7, finished roof materials included: metal/zinc; wood; calamine/cement fibre; ceramic tiles; cement; roofing shingles. According to DHS 7, improved water services include: piped into dwelling piped to yard/plot; public tap/standpipe; piped to neighbour; tube well or borehole; protected well; protected spring; rainwater; tanker truck, cart with small tank; bottled water. According to DHS 7, improved sanitation facilities include: flush - to piped sewer system; flush - to septic tank; flush - to pit latrine; flush - don't know where; pit latrine - ventilated improved pit (VIP); pit latrine - with slab; composting toilet.
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    World Bank DBI Reliability of infrastructure index ranking: Africa
    i
    The rank of the country's score on the World Bank's reliability of infrastructure index within Africa. The reliability of infrastructure index has six components: (1) In what format land title certificates are kept at the immovable property registry of the largest business city of the economy. A score of 2 is assigned if the majority of land title certificates are fully digital; 1 if scanned; 0 if kept in paper format. (2) Whether there is a comprehensive and functional electronic database for checking all encumbrances, caveats, charges or privileges affecting a registered propertys encumbrances. A score of 1 is assigned if yes; 0 if no. (3) In what format cadastral plans are kept at the mapping agency of the largest business city of the economy. A score of 2 is assigned if the majority of cadastral plans are fully digital; 1 if scanned; 0 if kept in paper format. (4) Whether there is a geographic information system (a fully digital geographic representation of the land plot) an electronic database for recording boundaries, checking plans and providing cadastral information. A score of 1 is assigned if yes; 0 if no. (5) Whether the land ownership registry and mapping agency are linked. A score of 1 is assigned if information about land ownership and maps is kept in a single database or in linked databases; 0 if there is no connection between different databases. (6) How immovable property is identified. A score of 1 is assigned if both the immovable property registry and the mapping agency use the same identification number for properties; 0 if there are multiple identifiers. The index ranges from 0 to 8, with higher values indicating a higher quality of infrastructure for ensuring the reliability of information on property titles and boundaries.
    - - -
    World Bank DBI Reliability of infrastructure index ranking: Global
    i
    The global rank of the country's score on the World Bank's reliability of infrastructure index. The reliability of infrastructure index has six components: (1) In what format land title certificates are kept at the immovable property registry of the largest business city of the economy. A score of 2 is assigned if the majority of land title certificates are fully digital; 1 if scanned; 0 if kept in paper format. (2) Whether there is a comprehensive and functional electronic database for checking all encumbrances, caveats, charges or privileges affecting a registered propertys encumbrances. A score of 1 is assigned if yes; 0 if no. (3) In what format cadastral plans are kept at the mapping agency of the largest business city of the economy. A score of 2 is assigned if the majority of cadastral plans are fully digital; 1 if scanned; 0 if kept in paper format. (4) Whether there is a geographic information system (a fully digital geographic representation of the land plot) an electronic database for recording boundaries, checking plans and providing cadastral information. A score of 1 is assigned if yes; 0 if no. (5) Whether the land ownership registry and mapping agency are linked. A score of 1 is assigned if information about land ownership and maps is kept in a single database or in linked databases; 0 if there is no connection between different databases. (6) How immovable property is identified. A score of 1 is assigned if both the immovable property registry and the mapping agency use the same identification number for properties; 0 if there are multiple identifiers. The index ranges from 0 to 8, with higher values indicating a higher quality of infrastructure for ensuring the reliability of information on property titles and boundaries.
    - - -

    Supply

    Uganda produces an estimated 60 000 housing units against a demand of 200 000 housing units a year. In urban areas, 6.9 percent of housing produced annually is temporary, 27 percent is semi-permanent and more than 66 percent permanent. In the Greater Kampala Metropolitan Area (GKMA), housing is generally self-provided by households and individual entrepreneurs. Uganda has a widening deficit of housing, estimated at 2.4 million units. Issues include supply-side bottlenecks, unaffordable credit, insecure land tenure, burgeoning informal settlements, and insufficient political will. Though it is estimated to contribute 7.5 percent of Uganda’s overall GDP, budget allocation for this sector stands at less than 0.3 percent, a reduction from USh1.613 billion (US$433 thousand) in the fiscal year (FY) 2017/18 to USh1.405 billion (US$377 thousand) for FY 2020/21.

    In Uganda, self-built housing, often constructed incrementally, dominates the building market. Two-bedroom and three-bedroom units are the most popular in urban areas such as the GKMA, with single bedroom/studio apartments also becoming popular. Aside from plans by the National Housing Construction Company (NHCC), National Social Security Company (NSSF) and other established private real estate developers to increase the housing supply capacity, Buganda Kingdom (a cultural institution in Central Uganda), has collaborated with foreign investors to implement a low-cost 400 housing unit project with units priced at USh52 million (US$14 000).

    Construction costs and building materials, in particular, make up a significant portion of house construction costs in Uganda. The cost of a standard 50kg bag of cement is USh28 000 (US$7.50) – this is compared to Kenya (US$5.45), Nigeria (US$5.83), Tanzania (US$6.04), and Mozambique (US$6.42). In spite of high land and construction costs, modular building technologies are not popular in Uganda due to consumer preferences for mainstream concrete, brick and mortar structures.

    Investment

    Several factors have been key in facilitating the improvement of private sector housing provision in Uganda, including enhanced urban infrastructure, increased financing options, improvements in banking with low inflation rates, stable governance, oil and gas development, and an increased flow of remittances from Ugandans working abroad. At the same time, housing supply has been undermined by growing competition within the sector for high-end housing. This is approaching saturation point with low occupancy rates, thus affecting return on investments.

    Although the availability of construction finance is limited, it remains an important source of funding to support incremental construction. In 2019, 6 200 housing construction loans were disbursed in Uganda.

    Of the 19 indicators in this group, 7 are currently populated.

    Indicator Data Source Aggregation Year Data Quality Data Accessibility Value
    Number of people per sleeping room in formal dwellings
    i
    The number of people per sleeping room in formal dwellings. Sleeping rooms exclude kitchens, bathrooms, and garages. Formal dwellings are defined as dwellings where the main material used for the walls and roof of the dwelling are finished. The definition of finished materials are as per the latest DHS questionnaire. Some of these may be country specific, but the major categories are standard. In DHS 7, finished wall materials included: cement; stone with lime/cement; bricks; cement blocks; covered adobe; wood planks/shingles. In DHS 7, finished roof materials included: metal/zinc; wood; calamine/cement fibre; ceramic tiles; cement; roofing shingles.
    DHS Urban 2016
    2.13
    DHS Bottom 40 2016
    2.82
    Number of people per sleeping room in informal dwellings
    i
    The number of people per sleeping room in informal dwellings. Sleeping rooms exclude kitchens, bathrooms, and garages. Informal dwellings are defined as dwellings where the main material used for the walls or roof of the dwelling are unfinished. The definition of finished materials are as per the latest DHS questionnaire. Some of these may be country specific, but the major categories are standard. The definition of finished materials are as per the latest DHS questionnaire. Some of these may be country specific, but the major categories are standard. In DHS 7, finished wall materials included: cement; stone with lime/cement; bricks; cement blocks; covered adobe; wood planks/shingles. In DHS 7, finished roof materials included: metal/zinc; wood; calamine/cement fibre; ceramic tiles; cement; roofing shingles.
    DHS Urban 2016
    2.51
    DHS Bottom 40 2016
    2.67
    Number of households living in dwellings built using durable building materials (walls and roof)
    i
    The number of households living in dwellings where the main material of the walls and roof are finished. The definition of finished materials are as per the latest DHS questionnaire. Some of these may be country specific, but the major categories are standard. In DHS 7, finished wall materials included: cement; stone with lime/cement; bricks; cement blocks; covered adobe; wood planks/shingles. In DHS 7, finished roof materials included: metal/zinc; wood; calamine/cement fibre; ceramic tiles; cement; roofing shingles.
    DHS National 2016
    283,971
    % of population living in slums, informal settlements, or inadequate dwellings
    i
    The percentage of the population that are part of households whose main dwelling meets the criteria of a slum/inadequate/informal dwelling. A household living in a slum/inadequate dwelling/informal settlement is defined as a group of individuals living under the same roof lacking one or more of the following conditions: access to improved water, access to improved sanitation, sufficient living area, and durability of housing. As per the UN definition, access to improved water requires the household to have access to: Piped connection to house or plot OR Public stand pipe serving no more than 5 households OR Bore hole OR Protected dug well OR Protected spring OR Rain water collection OR Bottle water (new). As per the UN definition, access to improved sanitation requires the household to have access to: Direct connection to public sewer OR Direct connection to septic tank OR Poor flush latrine OR Ventilated improved pit latrine OR Pit latrine with slab (new). The sufficient living area requirement requires there to be less than 4 people per habitable room in the household's dwelling. Habitable rooms exclude kitchens, bathrooms, and garages. Durability of housing requires the main material of the walls, floor, and roof of the household's dwelling to be finished. The definition of finished materials are as per the latest DHS questionnaire. Some of these may be country specific, but the major categories are standard. In DHS 7, finished floor materials included: parquet or polished wood; vinyl or asphalt strips; ceramic tiles; cement; carpet/rug. In DHS 7, finished wall materials included: cement; stone with lime/cement; bricks; cement blocks; covered adobe; wood planks/shingles. In DHS 7, finished roof materials included: metal/zinc; wood; calamine/cement fibre; ceramic tiles; cement; roofing shingles.
    World Bank Urban 2018 Not rated Not rated 48.30%
    Size of the cheapest, newly built dwelling by a formal developer / contractor in an urban area in square meters
    i
    The size of the cheapest, newly built dwelling by a formal developer / contractor in an urban area in square meters.
    Comfort Homes Uganda Urban 2019
    85m2
    Cost of standard 50kg bag of cement
    i
    The wholesale price of a standard 50kg bag of OPC cement in local currency units. The strength class of the OPC cement should be 32.5N.
    Cement News National 2019 Not rated Not rated 28,000 UGX$7.64
    Time (in days) from application to completion for dwellings in the main urban city
    i
    The median number of days (inclusive of weekends and public holidays) between the issuance of a building construction permit and the issuance of an occupancy permit for residential dwellings. A building construction permit provides developers / contractors with permission to commence construction on the proposed site / development. An occupancy permit provides certifies the dwelling as habitable.
    Housing Finance Bank Kampala 2019
    240
    Total cost of all residential construction permit-related procedures
    i
    The total cost of all permits (in local currency units) required for the construction of a residential dwelling and declaring it fit for occupancy. Assumptions about the developer/contractor, dwelling to be built, and water & sewerage connections: The developer is 100% domestically and privately owned; has five owners, none of whom is a legal entity. Has a licensed architect and a licensed engineer, both registered with the local association of architects or engineers. The developer is not assumed to have any other employees who are technical or licensed experts, such as geological or topographical experts. The developer owns the land on which the dwelling will be built and will sell the dwelling upon its completion. The dwelling will be used for residential purposes only. The dwelling will have a single storey, above ground, with a total constructed area of approximately XX square meters. The single storey will be XX meters high and will be located on a land plot of approximately XX square meters that is 100% owned by the developer. The dwelling is valued at XX times income per capita. The dwelling will have complete architectural and technical plans prepared by a licensed architect. If preparation of the plans requires such steps as obtaining further documentation or getting prior approvals from external agencies, these are counted as procedures. The dwelling will take XX weeks to construct (excluding all delays due to administrative and regulatory requirements). The water and sewerage connections of the dwelling will be XX meters from the existing water source and sewer tap. If there is no water delivery infrastructure in the economy, a borehole will be dug. If there is no sewerage infrastructure, a septic tank in the smallest size available will be installed or built. The water connection for the dwelling will be XX inch in diameter and the sewerage connection for the dwelling will be XX inches in diameter.
    Smart Havens Africa Smart Havens Africa 2019 Not rated Not rated 7,000,000 UGX$1,909.44
    % of households living in dwellings built using durable building materials (walls and roof) that are overcrowded
    i
    The percentage of households living in dwellings where the main material of the walls and roof are finished and the dwelling is overcrowded. The definition of finished materials are as per the latest DHS questionnaire. Some of these may be country specific, but the major categories are standard. An overcrowded dwelling is one where there are more than two people per sleeping room.In DHS 7, finished wall materials included: cement; stone with lime/cement; bricks; cement blocks; covered adobe; wood planks/shingles. In DHS 7, finished roof materials included: metal/zinc; wood; calamine/cement fibre; ceramic tiles; cement; roofing shingles.
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    Number of dwellings completed annually
    i
    The number of new residential units completed per annum for which occupancy permits have been issued.
    - - -
    Gross fixed capital formation of dwellings as % of GDP
    i
    The value of capital invested in the formation of dwellings as a percentage of the country's Gross Domestic Product.
    - - -
    Residential rental sector as a % of GDP
    i
    The value of the rental sector as a percentage of the country's Gross Domestic Product.
    - - -
    Residential construction sector as a % of GDP
    i
    The value of the construction sector as a percentage of the country's Gross Domestic Product.
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    Is there a body that organises developers / contractors?
    i
    A "Yes" or "No" answer whether or not a body exists that organises developers / contractors.
    - - -
    Number of formal private developers / contractors serving the bottom-end of the market
    i
    The total number of registered private developers or contractors that build dwellings affordable to the bottom-end of the market. Registered private developers / contractors refers to businesses that are privately owned (not owned by government) and have a valid business/operating permit/license. From a buying perspective, affordability for the bottom-end of the market requires the price of the dwellings to be such that the bottom end of the market (calculation methodology to be determined) can afford to purchase it at market borrowing terms or the terms offered by the developer/accessible through the developer. From a rental perspective, affordability for the bottom-end of the market requires the rental price of the dwellings built by the developer / contractor to be such that the monthly rent-to-income ratio of the dwelling does not exceed 30% of bottom end of market household incomes.
    - - -
    Number of people employed in the residential construction sector
    i
    The number of people employed in the residential construction sector as per CAHF's HEVC methodology.
    - - -
    Number of people employed in the residential rental sector
    i
    The number of people employed in the residential rental sector as per CAHF's HEVC methodology.
    - - -
    Number of completed developer built dwellings that are accessible to the bottom-end of the market
    i
    The total dwellings completed in the last calendar year that are affordable to the bottom-end of the market (calculation methodology to be determined). Completed dwellings are dwellings for which occupancy permits have been issued. From a buying perspective, affordability for the bottom-end of the market requires the price of the dwellings to be such that the bottom-end of the market households can afford to purchase it at market borrowing terms or the terms offered by the developer/accessible through the developer. From a rental perspective, affordability for the bottom-end of the market requires the rental price of the dwellings built by the developer / contractor to be such that the monthly rent-to-income ratio of the dwelling does not exceed 30% of the bottom-end of the market household incomes.
    - - -
    Average residential building cost inflation for dwellings over 5 years
    i
    The average annual residential building cost inflation for dwellings over five consecutive years.
    - - -

    Property Markets

    Housing availability and affordability is more pronounced in Uganda’s urban areas, which have expanded rapidly to accommodate migration from rural areas. Most households in rural areas have access to secure tenure through customary systems and low-cost building techniques. In urban areas, however, the growth of informal settlements shows the scale and magnitude of the housing challenge for both owners and tenants.

    The country is largely informed by private-sector led housing development, which is unable to meet the growing demand for affordable housing. The Greater Kampala Metropolitan Area (GKMA) has more than 30 formal real estate firms competing in the urban residential and commercial real estate property business with an even larger number of informal small businesses and individuals. The larger formal firms dominate the market for commercial and high-end residential properties with the smaller firms and informal players concentrating on residential properties in the middle and lower end of the market. Housing developers in Uganda are typically made up of a combination of informal and formal players: individual entrepreneurs, local micro, small-scale and medium enterprises, as well as large firms, including the National Housing Construction Company (NHCC) and National Social Security Fund (NSSF). There is also growing competition from foreign-owned real estate developers.

    Mortgages

    Only 10 percent of Uganda’s adult population borrowed from a formal financial institution in 2018, reflecting the low level of financial inclusion in the country. Furthermore, mortgages were only 0.64 percent of GDP in 2020, though prior to 2020, the banking sector was witnessing tremendous growth ¹. Currently, Uganda has a total value of USh822 billion (US$220.4 million) in residential mortgage loans collectively held by formal banking and non-banking financial institutions. Commercial banks and other non-banking financial institutions account for more than 50 percent of this total. During the COVID-19 period, the central bank reduced the interest rate to seven percent from eight percent, the lowest in the last 30 years, though interest on mortgage loans remains relatively high.

    A small proportion of households in the GKMA with formal incomes above USh5 million (US$1 341) per month, can access housing finance from more than 10 commercial banks. Housing Finance Bank (HFB), the market leader, offers up to 100 percent financing at a 17.3 percent interest rate. Uganda’s HFB is highly state backed—50 percent owned by the National Social Security Fund (NSSF), 49 percent owned by the government and one percent owned by National Housing Construction Company (NHCC). Others such as Centenary and Stanbic Bank offer rates of approximately 19 percent and 16 percent respectively with mortgage funding capped at 80 percent. These relatively high interest rates, as well as a need for bankable collateral, pose serious hurdles for low-income households to access formal mortgage loans. This underscores the urgency for widening and deepening the range of housing finance products in Uganda.

    On average, mortgage terms are structured for payment over 10-20 years depending on a client’s credit risk profile (i.e. income stability and age), the mortgage instalment representing no more than 50 percent of a client’s monthly income. With effect from 1 June 2020, the central bank capped the loan-to-value ratio at 85 percent for mortgage loans and land purchases as a “risk mitigation measure.” These terms effectively exclude most of the population, who are low income households.

    Affordability

    The price of the cheapest, newly built house by a formal developer or contractor in the previous year – USh125 million (US$33 530) – is only affordable to 3.9 percent of urban households, highlighting the extent to which formal housing is unaffordable in Uganda. In addition, the average rental price for the cheapest, newly built house from a formal developer is equivalent to a low income household’s gross monthly income of USh500 000 (US$134). Less than half (46 percent) of all households in Uganda own their dwellings, underscoring the important role of the rental market and supporting policies in Uganda’s housing landscape.

    For low income households, which account for more than 60 percent of urban households in Uganda, the formal housing economy is too expensive due to limited means of accessing suitable housing finance. For these households, frugality and survival dictate their occupancy of low-quality units such as tenements (single-room dwellings) of less than 10m2, at average monthly rents of USh150 000 (US$40) and below. These households have a combined average of less than USh500 000 (US$134) in gross monthly income, of which 30 percent is taken up by rent alone.

    Of the 40 indicators in this group, 15 are currently populated.

    Indicator Data Source Aggregation Year Data Quality Data Accessibility Value
    Price of the cheapest, newly built dwelling by a formal developer or contractor
    i
    The price of the cheapest, newly built dwelling by a formal developer or contractor in local currency units.
    Various property developers Urban 2019
    125,000,000 UGX$34,097.11
    Average inflation for dwellings over 5 years
    i
    The average annual percentage change in the sales prices of completed residential dwellings over 5 years.
    UBOS National 2020
    4.34%
    % of households that own their dwelling
    i
    The share of households that claim to own their dwelling.
    DHS National 2016 Not rated Not rated 45.52%
    DHS Bottom 40 2016
    58.42%
    Typical rental price for cheapest, newly built dwelling by a formal developer or contractor
    i
    The typical rental price per month in local currency units for a dwelling that matches the price and size characteristics provided by the "Price of the cheapest, newly built dwelling by a formal developer / contractor in an urban area in square meters" and "Size of the cheapest, newly built dwelling by a formal developer / contractor in an urban area in square meters" indicators.
    Housing Finance Bank Urban 2019
    500,000 UGX$136.39
    % of households that rent their dwelling
    i
    The share of households that claim to rent their dwelling.
    DHS National 2016 Not rated Not rated 53.45%
    Value of formal housing finance outstanding
    i
    The value of outstanding residential mortgages in local currency units at the end of a calendar year for residential mortgages issued by licensed/registered residential mortgage providers.
    Bank of Uganda National 2020
    822,000,000,000 UGX$224,222,585.92
    Value of residential mortgages outstanding as % of GDP
    i
    The value of outstanding residential mortgages in local currency units at the end of a calendar year as a share of nominal GDP in local currency units.
    Bank of Uganda; World Bank National 2019
    0.64%
    Maximum residential mortgage term
    i
    The maximum term in years on residential mortgages offered by registered/licensed mortgage providers.
    Various websites National 2019
    20
    % of the adult population that borrowed formally
    i
    The share of individuals aged 15+ that borrowed from formal financial institutions. The definition of formal financial institution is as used by the Global Findex database encompasses all types of financial institutions that offer deposit, checking, and savings accounts (including banks, credit unions, Microfinance institutions, and post offices) and that fall under prudential regulation by a government body. The definition does not include nonbank financial institutions such as pension funds, retirement accounts, insurance companies, or equity holdings such as stocks.
    FSD Uganda National 2018
    10.00%
    Income distribution thresholds
    i
    This indicator contains the income levels (in local currency units) that cuts the income distribution of the country's into deciles.
    Reall National 2019
    Populated - Click left arrow to view
    Does a foreclosure policy exist?
    i
    Asks whether or not a foreclosure procedure exists.
    Uganda Legal Information Institute National 2009 Not rated Not rated Yes
    Does an operational mortgage refinancing company exist?
    i
    Asks whether or not a mortgage refinance company exists and is operational in the country.
    FinMark Trust National 2008 Not rated Not rated Yes
    Number of residential mortgage providers
    i
    The number of residential mortgage providers. Each provider should be registered with, or licensed by, the Central Bank/financial regulator and one of their financing offerings must be residential mortgage loans.
    Bank of Uganda National 2019
    5
    Prevailing residential mortgage rates
    i
    The minimum and maximum interest rates on residential mortgages.
    Bank of Uganda National 2018
    22.60%
    % of households that can afford the cheapest, newly built dwelling by a formal developer or contractor
    i
    The share of households that can afford to buy the cheapest, newly built dwelling by a formal developer or contractor based on assumptions around financing terms and the instalment to income ratio. These assumptions are as follows: (1) the mortgage rate is equal to the maximum residential mortgage rate (see indicator Maximum residential mortgage rate); (2) the mortgage term is equal to the maximum mortgage term (see indicator Maximum residential mortgage term), (3) the LTV is equal to the maximum LTV on a residential mortgage (see indicator Maximum LTV on a residential mortgage), (4) the instalment to income ratio is equal to the maximum instalment to income ratio (see indicator Maximum instalment to income ratio). This indicator assumes that households have the savings required to meet the LTV criteria, the repayment schedule is at the beginning of the month, the affordability relates to the annuity mortgage (not interest only), there are no balloon repayments.
    CAHF; C-GIDD Urban 2019
    3.93%
    % of households with female or joint ownership of a dwelling
    i
    The share of households where a female member of the households owns their main dwelling or any other dwelling either outright or jointly with someone else.
    - - -
    % of households with female ownership of a dwelling
    i
    The share of households where a female member of the households owns their main dwelling or any other dwelling outright.
    - - -
    World Bank DBI equal access to property rights index ranking: Africa
    i
    The rank of the country's score on the World Bank's equal access to property rights index within Africa. The equal access to property rights index has two components: (1) Whether unmarried men and unmarried women have equal ownership rights to property. A score of -1 is assigned if there are unequal ownership rights to property; 0 if there is equality. (2) Whether married men and married women have equal ownership rights to property. A score of -1 is assigned if there are unequal ownership rights to property; 0 if there is equality. Ownership rights cover the ability to manage, control, administer, access, encumber, receive, dispose of and transfer property. Each restriction is considered if there is a differential treatment for men and women in the law considering the default marital property regime. For customary land systems, equality is assumed unless there is a general legal provision stating a differential treatment. The index ranges from -2 to 0, with higher values indicating greater inclusiveness of property rights.
    - - -
    World Bank DBI equal access to property rights index ranking: Global
    i
    The global rank of the country's score on the World Bank's equal access to property rights index. The equal access to property rights index has two components: (1) Whether unmarried men and unmarried women have equal ownership rights to property. A score of -1 is assigned if there are unequal ownership rights to property; 0 if there is equality. (2) Whether married men and married women have equal ownership rights to property. A score of -1 is assigned if there are unequal ownership rights to property; 0 if there is equality. Ownership rights cover the ability to manage, control, administer, access, encumber, receive, dispose of and transfer property. Each restriction is considered if there is a differential treatment for men and women in the law considering the default marital property regime. For customary land systems, equality is assumed unless there is a general legal provision stating a differential treatment. The index ranges from -2 to 0, with higher values indicating greater inclusiveness of property rights.
    - - -
    Number of formal estate agents
    i
    The total number of registered real estate agents that are subject to regulatory oversight.
    - - -
    Resale transactions as a % of all residential transactions
    i
    The number of residential resale transactions as a share of all residential transactions. A resale refers to any home that has been previously owned. In other words, all residential properties other than newly constructed ones.
    - - -
    Number of new residential transfers
    i
    The total number of residential transactions in a given calendar year where the dwelling is classified as a new build.
    - - -
    Number of residential resale transactions
    i
    The total number of residential resale transactions in a given calendar year. A resale refers to any home that has been previously owned. In other words, all residential properties other than newly constructed ones.
    - - -
    Number of residential transfers financed with a mortgage
    i
    The total number of residential property transfers that were financed with a mortgage.
    - - -
    Does government or industry publish any data on land prices in the main urban centre?
    i
    Asks whether or not there are any publications by government and/or industry that contain data on land prices in the main urban centre.
    - - -
    World Bank DBI land dispute resolution index ranking: Africa
    i
    The rank of the country's score on the World Bank's land dispute resolution index within Africa. The land dispute resolution index assesses the legal framework for immovable property registration and the accessibility of dispute resolution mechanisms. The index has eight components: (1) Whether the law requires that all property sale transactions be registered at the immovable property registry to make them opposable to third parties. A score of 1.5 is assigned if yes; 0 if no. (2) Whether the formal system of immovable property registration is subject to a guarantee. A score of 0.5 is assigned if either a state or private guarantee over immovable property registration is required by law; 0 if no such guarantee is required. (3) Whether there is a specific, out-of-court compensation mechanism to cover for losses incurred by parties who engaged in good faith in a property transaction based on erroneous information certified by the immovable property registry. A score of 0.5 is assigned if yes; 0 if no. (4) Whether the legal system requires verification of the legal validity of the documents (such as the sales, transfer or conveyance deed) necessary for a property transaction. A score of 0.5 is assigned if there is a review of legal validity, either by the registrar or by a professional (such as a notary or a lawyer); 0 if there is no review. (5) Whether the legal system requires verification of the identity of the parties to a property transaction. A score of 0.5 is assigned if there is verification of identity, either by the registrar or by a professional (such as a notary or a lawyer); 0 if there is no verification. (6) Whether there is a national database to verify the accuracy of government-issued identity documents. A score of 1 is assigned if such a national database is available; 0 if not. (7) How much time it takes to obtain a decision from a court of first instance (without an appeal) in a standard land dispute between two local businesses over tenure rights worth 50 times income per capita and located in the largest business city. A score of 3 is assigned if it takes less than one year; 2 if it takes between one and two years; 1 if it takes between two and three years; 0 if it takes more than three years. (8) Whether there are publicly available statistics on the number of land disputes at the economy level in the first instance court. For the 11 economies where the data are also collected for the second largest business city, city-level statistics are taken into account. A score of 0.5 is assigned if statistics are published about land disputes in the economy in the past calendar year; 0 if no such statistics are made publicly available. The index ranges from 0 to 8, with higher values indicating greater protection against land disputes.
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    World Bank DBI land dispute resolution index ranking: Global
    i
    The global rank of the country's score on the World Bank's land dispute resolution index. The land dispute resolution index assesses the legal framework for immovable property registration and the accessibility of dispute resolution mechanisms. The index has eight components: (1) Whether the law requires that all property sale transactions be registered at the immovable property registry to make them opposable to third parties. A score of 1.5 is assigned if yes; 0 if no. (2) Whether the formal system of immovable property registration is subject to a guarantee. A score of 0.5 is assigned if either a state or private guarantee over immovable property registration is required by law; 0 if no such guarantee is required. (3) Whether there is a specific, out-of-court compensation mechanism to cover for losses incurred by parties who engaged in good faith in a property transaction based on erroneous information certified by the immovable property registry. A score of 0.5 is assigned if yes; 0 if no. (4) Whether the legal system requires verification of the legal validity of the documents (such as the sales, transfer or conveyance deed) necessary for a property transaction. A score of 0.5 is assigned if there is a review of legal validity, either by the registrar or by a professional (such as a notary or a lawyer); 0 if there is no review. (5) Whether the legal system requires verification of the identity of the parties to a property transaction. A score of 0.5 is assigned if there is verification of identity, either by the registrar or by a professional (such as a notary or a lawyer); 0 if there is no verification. (6) Whether there is a national database to verify the accuracy of government-issued identity documents. A score of 1 is assigned if such a national database is available; 0 if not. (7) How much time it takes to obtain a decision from a court of first instance (without an appeal) in a standard land dispute between two local businesses over tenure rights worth 50 times income per capita and located in the largest business city. A score of 3 is assigned if it takes less than one year; 2 if it takes between one and two years; 1 if it takes between two and three years; 0 if it takes more than three years. (8) Whether there are publicly available statistics on the number of land disputes at the economy level in the first instance court. For the 11 economies where the data are also collected for the second largest business city, city-level statistics are taken into account. A score of 0.5 is assigned if statistics are published about land disputes in the economy in the past calendar year; 0 if no such statistics are made publicly available. The index ranges from 0 to 8, with higher values indicating greater protection against land disputes.
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    Value of formal housing finance issued per annum
    i
    The value of residential mortgages issued in a calendar year by licensed/registered residential mortgage providers in local currency units.
    - - -
    Mortgages as a % of properties
    i
    The total number of outstanding residential mortgages as a share of residential properties that have a title deed
    - - -
    Highest LTV on a residential mortgage
    i
    The regulatory maximum residential mortgage loan-to-value (LTV) ratio set by the central bank. If there is no maximum residential mortgage LTV set by the central bank then use the maximum residential LTV accepted/offered by registered/licensed residential mortgage providers.
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    Is there a regulatory cap on residential mortgage interest rates?
    i
    Asks whether or not regulation exists that places a ceiling on the residential mortgage interest rate.
    - - -
    Number of residential mortgage providers that serve the bottom-end of the market
    i
    The number of residential mortgage providers. Each provider should be registered with, or licensed by, the Central Bank/financial regulator and one of their financing offerings must be residential mortgage loans.
    - - -
    Number of residential mortgages issued per annum
    i
    The number of residential mortgages issued in a calendar year by licensed/registered residential mortgage providers.
    - - -
    Number of residential mortgages or formal loans provided to the bottom-end of the market
    i
    The number of residential mortgages issued in a calendar year by licensed/registered residential mortgage providers plus the number of or other formal loans issued by licensed financial service providers within a calendar year where the borrower is from the bottom-end of the market.
    - - -
    Number of residential mortgages outstanding
    i
    The number of residential mortgages outstanding on the books of registered/licensed residential mortgage providers.
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    Number of end-user finance loans disbursed or mobilised for purchases of dwellings in the previous calendar year
    i
    The total number of end-user finance loans that a developer/contractor disbursed to clients (directly or indirectly) in a calendar year for the purposes of purchasing a completed dwelling. Direct disbursement includes all loans where the developer provides the financing directly. Indirect disbursement includes all loans where the developer has brokered a formal arrangement with a financial institution so that the financial institution can provide end-user financing to the developer's clients.
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    Non-performing residential mortgages as a % of total outstanding residential mortgages
    i
    The ratio of non-performing residential mortgages to total outstanding residential mortgages (volume not value) at the end of the financial year.
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    % of households that can afford cheapest partner dwelling
    i
    The share of households that can afford to but the cheapest partner dwelling based on assumptions around financing terms. These assumptions are as follows: (1) the mortgage rate is equal to the maximum residential mortgage rate (see indicator 'Maximum residential mortgage rate'); (2) the mortgage term is equal to the maximum mortgage term (see indicator 'Maximum residential mortgage term'), (3) the LTV is equal to the maximum LTV on a residential mortgage (see indicator 'Maximum LTV on a residential mortgage'), (4) the instalment to income ratio is equal to the maximum instalment to income ratio (see indicator 'Maximum instalment to income ratio'). This indicator assumes that households have the savings required to meet the LTV criteria.
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    Maximum dwelling price affordable to B40 households based on market mortgage finance terms
    i
    The maximum dwelling price affordable to B40 households based on market mortgage finance terms. This indicator assumes that B40 households have the savings required to meet the LTV criteria. The market mortgage financing terms are as follows: (1) the mortgage rate is equal to the maximum residential mortgage rate (see indicator 'Maximum residential mortgage rate'), (2) the mortgage term is equal to the maximum mortgage term (see indicator 'Maximum residential mortgage term'), (3) the LTV is equal to the maximum LTV on a residential mortgage (see indicator 'Maximum LTV on a residential mortgage'), (4) the instalment to income ratio is equal to the maximum instalment to income ratio (see indicator 'Maximum instalment to income ratio'). This indicator assumes that households have the savings required to meet the LTV criteria.
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    Maximum dwelling rent affordable to B40 households
    i
    The maximum dwelling rental affordable to B40 households based on the maximum installment to income ratio.
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    The level of household expenditure on housing is low in Uganda, and this is a reflection of low incomes and affordability. In 2020, households allocated just under 4 percent to dwelling improvements. Together with construction loans, microfinance loans are an important source of finance for self-built housing in Uganda.

    In Uganda there has been an upsurge in smaller, non-banking organisations in the past decade. In 2019, Uganda Microfinance Regulatory Authority issued more than 500 licences to different microfinance institutions offering finance for housing. Non-banking organisations that offer housing finance have a variety of packages, ranging from home-improvement loans to actual mortgages. These housing finance products are accessible to low-income households, which may not have bankable collateral to access formal housing finance from commercial banks.

    Microfinance institutions have filled the financing gap by providing more flexible and customised home improvement loans for as low as USh500 000 (US$134), which are obtained by leveraging small business assets and social collateral. Featuring negotiable repayment terms and lower loan amounts, these are frequently used for incremental housing construction. Some commercial banks have also introduced home-improvement loans in line with market realities. There are 61 licensed microfinance providers in Uganda, and in 2019, the value of microfinance loans outstanding was USh376 billion (US$100.8 million). Given a lack of publicly available disaggregated data, this figure reflects all microfinance loans, and not just those related to home improvements.

    Of the 6 indicators in this group, 3 are currently populated.

    Indicator Data Source Aggregation Year Data Quality Data Accessibility Value
    Improvements to dwellings as a % of household expenditure
    i
    Household expenditure on improvements to dwellings in current local currency units as a share of total household expenditure in current local currency units. Expenditure on improvements to dwellings include: additions and alterations; labour and material for improvements, additions, and alterations; services for improvements, additions, and alterations; building materials for improvements, additions, and alterations; security structures.
    Uganda Bureau of Statistics National 2020
    3.87%
    Number of microfinance providers
    i
    The number of registered microfinance providers subject to prudential regulation/government oversight.
    Bank of Uganda National 2020
    61
    Value of outstanding microfinance loans
    i
    The value of microfinance loans outstanding in current local currency units.
    Bank of Uganda National 2020
    377,000,000,000 UGX$102,836,879.43
    Number of approved building permit applications for improvements to residential properties
    i
    The number of approved permit applications for improvements to residential properties.
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    % of households without access to basic waste collection services
    i
    The share of households without access to basic waste collection services. Basic waste collection services are defined as a reliable waste collection service, including both formal municipal and informal sector services. The collection service must be either door-to-door or deposit into a community container. The collection includes recycling as well as for treatment and disposal (so includes e.g. collection of recyclables by itinerant waste buyers). The waste must be collection must be reliable (i.e. regular) - the frequency will depend on country/municipality specific conditions and on any pre-separation of the waste.
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    Number of residential properties that are rated for property taxes in the main urban centre
    i
    The number of residential properties that are rated for property taxes in the main urban centres
    - - -

    The Ugandan government has generally created an enabling environment by developing and implementing policy and institutional frameworks for housing provision and regulation. This is evident through various housing-related programmes that it has undertaken, particularly those directed towards low-cost housing. Key policy developments that will impact the housing sector in 2020 include the enactment of the Building Control Regulations 2020 and the Income Tax (Rental Rates) Regulations 2020. The former was passed to enforce the Building Control Act No. 10 of 2013 to promote secure and safe building structures in accordance with acceptable standards. The latter facilitates the collection of public revenue from previously overlooked sectors such as rental estates.

    In the 2020 budget, the government targeted improving access to investment finance for Savings and Credit Cooperative Societies (SACCOs) and microfinance institutions to USh94 billion (US$25.2 million). It has also capitalised the Uganda Development Bank with USh1.045 billion (US$377 thousand) to offer cheaper financing for the private sector. These interventions present significant opportunities for the housing sector to access affordable financing in order to narrow the housing deficit.

    According to the World Bank, Uganda improved its rank in the ease of doing business index, from 127 in 2019, to 116 in 2020. Uganda ranks relatively highly for enforcing contracts (77th), but continues to rank low for starting a business (169th) and getting electricity (168th). Uganda’s score in the Human Development Index has continued to improve, rising from 0.320 in 1990, to 0.544 in 2019.

    Of the 6 indicators in this group, 2 are currently populated.

    Indicator Data Source Aggregation Year Data Quality Data Accessibility Value
    Human development index (HDI) country ranking: Global
    i
    The ranking of the country's Human Development Index Score globally. The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: a long and healthy life, access to knowledge and a decent standard of living. The HDI is the geometric mean of normalized indices for each of the three dimensions.
    UNDP National 2017 Not rated Not rated 162
    Ease of doing business index rank: Global
    i
    The ranking of the country's Ease of Doing Business Score globally. The ease of doing business score measures an economys performance with respect to a measure of regulatory best practice across the entire sample of 41 indicators for 10 Doing Business topics (the employing workers and contracting with the government indicators are excluded). See https://www.doingbusiness.org/en/methodology for a detailed description of the methodology.
    World Bank National 2020 Not rated Not rated 116
    Human development index (HDI) country ranking: Africa
    i
    The ranking of the country's Human Development Index Score within Africa. The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: a long and healthy life, access to knowledge and a decent standard of living. The HDI is the geometric mean of normalized indices for each of the three dimensions.
    - - -
    Ease of doing business index rank: Africa
    i
    The ranking of the country's Ease of Doing Business Score within Africa. The ease of doing business score measures an economys performance with respect to a measure of regulatory best practice across the entire sample of 41 indicators for 10 Doing Business topics (the employing workers and contracting with the government indicators are excluded). See https://www.doingbusiness.org/en/methodology for a detailed description of the methodology.
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    Corruption perceptions index rank: Africa
    i
    The Corruption Perceptions Index aggregates data from a number of different sources that provide perceptions by business people and country experts of the level of corruption in the public sector.
    - - -
    Corruption perceptions index rank: Global
    i
    The Corruption Perceptions Index aggregates data from a number of different sources that provide perceptions by business people and country experts of the level of corruption in the public sector.
    - - -

    Uganda’s economy is the third largest in the East African region, but in 2020, was severely affected by the COVID-19 global pandemic, locust invasions and rainfall-induced flooding. The country’s projected GDP growth rate for 2020 is projected to oscillate between 0.4 percent and 1.7 percent, below the 2019 rate of 5.6 percent ¹. Furthermore, the benefits of Uganda’s GDP growth over the years are not equally distributed amongst the population, as reflected by its Gini coefficient of 0.42. Shrinking foreign direct investments, remittances, exports and income from tourism, coupled with high inflation levels, have created an uncertain economic outlook, especially for crucial sectors such as real estate and housing. Annual inflation was 4.7 percent at the end of July 2020, up from 4.1 percent for June 2020, representing a three-and-a-half year high since 2017 ². Unemployment levels are at 2.1 percent, and 15.2 percent of the population live below the national poverty line.

    To ensure stability, maintain confidence and support sectors such as real estate and housing, the central bank (Bank of Uganda) cut lending rates to an unprecedented low of seven percent in 2020, though average interest rates on mortgage loans by major financial institutions remain above 15 percent, on par with pre-COVID 19 rates.

    Of the 14 indicators in this group, 10 are currently populated.

    Indicator Data Source Aggregation Year Data Quality Data Accessibility Value
    GDP growth rate
    i
    The annual percentage change in the value of real GDP.
    World Bank; IMF National 2018 Not rated Not rated 3.96%
    Unemployment rate
    i
    The narrow unemployment rate. The narrow unemployed are those of working age that are without work (i.e. have not been classified as employed); are currently available for work (either paid employment or self-employment during the reference period); and are seeking work i.e. have taken specific steps in a specified recent period to seek paid employment or self-employment. The narrow labour force are those of working age that are classified as employed as well as the narrow unemployed. The narrow unemployment rate is given by: (narrow unemployed)/(narrow labour force).
    UNDP National 2017 Not rated Not rated 2.10%
    % of population below national poverty line
    i
    The percentage of the population living below the national poverty lines. National estimates are based on population-weighted subgroup estimates from household surveys.
    UNDP; World Bank National 2017 Not rated Not rated 15.08%
    GDP per capita
    i
    The value of GDP in current local currency units divided by the size of the population.
    World Bank National 2018 Not rated Not rated 2,357,327 UGX$643.02
    Gini coefficient index
    i
    Gini index measures the extent to which the distribution of income (or, in some cases, consumption expenditure) among individuals or households within an economy deviates from a perfectly equal distribution. A Lorenz curve plots the cumulative percentages of total income received against the cumulative number of recipients, starting with the poorest individual or household. The Gini index measures the area between the Lorenz curve and a hypothetical line of absolute equality, expressed as a percentage of the maximum area under the line. Thus a Gini index of 0 represents perfect equality, while an index of 100 implies perfect inequality.
    World Bank National 2017 Not rated Not rated 0.43
    Yield on 2-year government bonds
    i
    The yield on government bonds/bills that are set to mature in 2 years.
    World Government Bonds National 2020 Not rated Not rated 14.47%
    Yield on 10-year government bonds
    i
    The yield on government bonds/bills that are set to mature in 10 years.
    World Government Bonds National 2020 Not rated Not rated 15.45%
    USD Exchange rate (1 USD = x LCU)
    i
    The number of local currency units per USD at the end of the year.
    Bank of Uganda National 2019 Not rated Not rated 3,666
    PPP conversion factor for private consumption
    i
    Purchasing power parity (PPP) conversion factor is a spatial price deflator and currency converter that controls for price level differences between countries, thereby allowing volume comparisons of gross domestic product (GDP) and its expenditure components. This conversion factor is for household final consumption expenditure.
    World Bank National 2018 Not rated Not rated 1,157
    % of individuals aged 15-49 that have not worked in the past 12 months
    i
    The percentage of individuals aged 15-49 that have not worked in the past 12 months and are not currently attending school.
    DHS Bottom 40 2016
    11.41%
    GDP per capita in current local currency units growth rate
    i
    The annual percentage growth rate of GDP per capita based on constant local currency.
    - - -
    Inflation rate (CPI)
    i
    The annual percentage change in the general price level.
    - - -
    % of females aged 15-49 that have not worked in the past 12 months
    i
    The percentage of females aged 15-49 that have not worked in the past 12 months and are not currently attending school.
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    Government construction of dwellings and serviced stands as a % of national budget
    i
    The share of the government's budget (actual expenditure, not estimated expenditure) allocated to the construction of residential dwellings.
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    Uganda is the third largest country in East Africa, situated in the heart of the Great Lakes Region. Uganda’s capital, Kampala, is the central node within a sprawling urbanised belt encompassing many smaller towns. This makes up the Greater Metropolitan Kampala Area (GKMA). The GKMA has a population of approximately four million ¹, which is more than 50 percent of the country’s total urban population. Uganda has a total population of 44.3 million and is amongst the fastest urbanising countries globally, with a population growth and urbanisation rate of 3.6 percent and 6 percent, respectively ². There are approximately 9.4 million households nationally and 681 422 urban households.

    Although the country has progressed towards addressing poverty over the past three decades, housing provision remains one of the most pervasive challenges faced by over two-thirds of Uganda’s population ³. Larger households tend to be poorer, and the bottom 40 percent of the income pyramid is characterised by a larger average household size (4.25), compared to the national average (3.97). With anticipated urban growth, the quality and quantity of dwellings for the urban poor, could worsen in coming years.

    Of the 7 indicators in this group, all are populated.

    Indicator Data Source Aggregation Year Data Quality Data Accessibility Value
    Number of households
    i
    The total number of households. A household consists of one or more people who live in the same dwelling and share meals.
    C-GIDD National 2019 Not rated Not rated 9,413,616
    Reall Urban 2019
    681,442
    Average household size
    i
    The average number of household members. A household consists of one or more people who live in the same dwelling and share meals.
    DHS National 2016
    3.97
    DHS Bottom 40 2016
    4.25
    Population size
    i
    The size of the population.
    World Bank National 2017 Not rated Not rated 41,487,000
    World Bank Bottom 40 2016 Not rated Not rated 14,764,859
    United Nations Kampala 2015 Not rated Not rated 1,936,000
    Population growth rate
    i
    The annual percentage change in the size of the population.
    World Bank National 2018 Not rated Not rated 3.70%
    World Bank Urban 2018 Not rated Not rated 6.20%
    Population pyramid
    i
    A collection of data points that shows the distribution of various age groups in a population, broken down by sex, for a given year.
    PopulationPyramid.net National 2019 Not rated Not rated Populated
    DHS Bottom 40 2016
    Populated
    Country income pyramid
    i
    A collection of data points that shows the number of households whose total annual income falls within different brackets.
    C-GIDD National 2018
    Populated
    List of main urban centres
    i
    The names of urban centres that are of interest in a specific country.
    CAHF National 2019 Not rated Not rated Entebbe, Kampala

    Documents

    Uganda MSI Country Profile

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    Uganda Data Landscape Report

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    MSI Metadata Document

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