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Pakistan - Market Shaping Indicators

View Reall projects in Pakistan

In Pakistan, Reall took the Market Shaping Indicators framework developed with the Centre for Affordable Housing Finance in Africa (CAHF) and worked with Impetus Advisory Group to adapt it for the Pakistani context. The data on narrative on this page is a result of this work, which was conducted in the cities of Karachi, Lahore, Rawalpindi-Islamabad, Quetta, and Peshawar, accounting for 15% of the total population of Pakistan.

Implementing the MSI framework forms a core part of Reall’s strategy in Pakistan, which involves investing in 6,500 affordable homes, enabling 1.2 million people to access housing finance, and promoting policy and regulatory change positively impacting 0.8 million people.

Country Overview

In recent years, Pakistan has witnessed a nation-wide housing crisis. Between the 1998 and 2017 national censuses, the country’s population increased by 57%, while the increase in urban population was 75.6% ¹. This increase has created an urban housing demand of up to 350,000 houses per annum, 87% of which is from lower-middle income groups. In contrast, the supply of urban housing is restricted to only 150,000 houses per annum, creating a shortfall of 200,000 per annum that gets further compounded year-on-year, leading to inflationary pressure on property prices.

Traditionally, housing development projects have a higher incentive to focus on upscale urban housing, owing to the larger margins in transactions, and tend to deprioritize urban dwellings that would cater to the Bottom 40% of the income pyramid (B40). Recent efforts by the government to mandate developers to allocate a minimum percentage of housing projects to affordable dwellings for the B40 have produced limited results – as housing permits are still issued by the regulator without due consideration to this important requirement. Furthermore, without government subsidies on land purchase, lower-middle income groups, a large slum population in the form of katchi abadis exist and are upheld within Pakistan. These urban slums are built on government land or agricultural land and they currently serve approximately a quarter of the total unmet demand for affordable housing. Moreover, 40 % of these slums are constructed through further densification of inner-city areas ².

According to the 2019 – 2020 Pakistan Economic Survey, the real estate and construction sectors employ a combined 8% of the total labour force in the country, making it the fourth largest employer ³. Despite its growing role in the local economy, the real estate sector is marked by a lack of accurate information, regulatory oversight, innovative investment and financing methods/products, along with an archaic bureaucratic processes. The local property market is highly volatile and data reveals strong inflationary trends in urban real estate prices. According to zameen.com , nationwide house prices (in nominal terms) rose by 5.05% to PKR 10,875 per square feet (sq. ft) during Q1 of 2019. However, when adjusted for inflation over the same period, house prices dropped by 3.98%.

State of Housing Data

Despite being one of Pakistan’s cornerstones of local investment and urban employment, the traditional real estate sector is still not sufficiently documented. Policymakers are unaware of the true costs and revenues realized by local development agencies, with most residential land undervalued in sale documentation to evade applicable taxes. Concurrently, construction firms and developers rely more on market speculation than end-user utility when designing and launching real estate projects. This information asymmetry across policymakers, developers, financiers, and end-users creates arbitrage opportunities and encourages price inflation in residential land. Information is the true currency of the real estate market in Pakistan and is closely guarded by the market’s agents. Not surprisingly, accurate, relevant, and credible data on land prices, construction costs and housing units is rare and limited.

As a subset of the larger real estate landscape, affordable housing is no exception to this state of data availability and accessibility. Household surveys and censuses rarely reference affordable housing as a domain of interest when collecting citizen data, and policy makers are usually restricted to project-specific, supply-side data only. Latent information on affordable housing metrics can be gleaned from a few official databases collected by the national and provincial bureaus of statistics, and a few private real estate brokerage houses have internal databases of relevance. However, data accessibility is still an issue for private datasets, as these data are rarely accessible nor open for dissemination to a wider audience.

Key Indicators

Displayed In

1. Land and Infrastructure

% of urban bottom 40 households without access to basic sanitation services

2.75

Bottom 40 See all MSI countries
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Country Year Data Source Value
Cote d'Ivoire 2012 DHS 96.5%
Ghana 2014 DHS 93.15%
Kenya 2014 DHS 88.25%
Morocco 2004 DHS 52.05%
Mozambique 2011 DHS 95.6%
Nigeria 2018 DHS 83.1%
Tanzania 2017 DHS 37%
Uganda 2016 DHS 94.5%
Rwanda 2016 National Institute of Statistics Rwanda (NISR) 13.13%
Pakistan 2018 The DHS Program 2.75%
India 2018 NSSO 76th Round 0.2%

2. Construction and Investment

% of urban population living in slums, informal settlements, or inadequate dwellings

Close
Country Year Data Source Value
Cote d'Ivoire N/A
Ghana N/A
Kenya N/A
Morocco N/A
Mozambique N/A
Nigeria N/A
Tanzania N/A
Uganda N/A
Rwanda 2018 World Bank 42.1%
Pakistan N/A
India 2018 NSSO 76th Round 35%

3. Sales and Rental

Number of residential mortgages outstanding

58,620

National See all MSI countries
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Country Year Data Source Value
Kenya 2019 Central Bank of Kenya 27,993
Nigeria 2019 NMRC 32,260
Tanzania 2019 Bank of Tanzania and Tanzania Mortgage Refinance Company Limited 5,460
Rwanda 2020 National Bank of Rwanda (NBR) 44,177
Pakistan 2019 State Bank of Pakistan - Housing Finance Data Review 58,620
India 2020 Reserve Bank of India 9,817,180

3. Sales and Rental

Price of the cheapest, newly built dwelling by a formal developer or contractor

2,500,000 PKR$14,305.33

Urban See all MSI countries
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Country Year Data Source Value
Cote d'Ivoire 2018 Site d'annonce et promotion dans l'immobilier en Côte d'Ivoire 15,500,000 CFA$27,087.48
Ghana 2019 Damax Construction Co. Ltd 108,704 GH₵$19,621.66
Kenya 2019 Tsavo Real Estate 4,000,000 Ksh$37,037.04
Morocco 2019 Various real estate websites 250,000 DH$27,027.03
Mozambique 2016 Casa Minha 3,418,491 MZ$48,147.76
Nigeria 2019 Millard Fuller Foundation; Shelter Origins 2,900,000 NGN$7,651.72
Tanzania 2018 CAHF 37,966,107 TZS$16,508.58
Uganda 2019 Various property developers 125,000,000 UGX$34,097.11
Rwanda 2020 Marchal Real Estate Developers 10,000,000 R₣$11,119.14
Pakistan 2021 Partners 2,500,000 PKR$14,305.33
India 2022 Real estate websites and industry experts 160,000 IN₹$2,176.87

3. Sales and Rental

% of national households that rent their dwelling

11.53

National See all MSI countries
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Country Year Data Source Value
Ghana 2017 Ghana Statistical Service 28%
Kenya 2019 Central Bank of Kenya, Kenya National Bureau of Statistics, FSD Kenya 35.01%
Morocco 2014 High Commission for Planning; World Bank 18.5%
Nigeria 2018 World Bank; Nigeria National Bureau of Statistics 21.8%
Tanzania 2017 National Bureau of Statistics 80.56%
Uganda 2016 DHS 53.45%
Rwanda 2020 Access to Finance Rwanda (AFR) and National Institute of Statistics Rwanda (NISR) 8.94%
Pakistan 2017 Population and Housing Census 11.53%
India 2018 NSSO 76th Round 13%

5. Enabling Environment

Ease of Doing Business Index Rank: Global

108 out of 190

National See all MSI countries
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Country Year Data Source Value
Cote d'Ivoire 2020 World Bank 110
Ghana 2020 World Bank 118
Kenya 2019 World Bank Ease of Doing Business 61
Morocco 2020 World Bank 53
Mozambique 2019 World Bank 74
Nigeria 2020 World Bank 131
Tanzania 2020 World Bank 141
Uganda 2020 World Bank 116
Rwanda 2020 World Bank Ease of Doing Business Indicators 38 out of 190
Pakistan 2020 World Bank Doing Business Indicator 108 out of 190
India 2020 World Bank 63 out of 190

6. Economic Environment

GDP Per Capita

188,900 PKR$1,080.91

National See all MSI countries
Close
Country Year Data Source Value
Cote d'Ivoire 2018 World Bank 1,024,171 CFA$1,789.82
Ghana 2019 World Bank 11,489 GH₵$2,073.83
Kenya 2018 World Bank 173,272 Ksh$1,604.37
Morocco 2018 World Bank 30,725 DH$3,321.62
Mozambique 2018 World Bank 30,772 MZ$433.41
Nigeria 2018 World Bank 659,159 NGN$1,739.21
Tanzania 2018 National Bureau of Statistics; World Bank 2,297,020 TZS$998.80
Uganda 2018 World Bank 2,357,327 UGX$643.02
Rwanda 2019 World Bank 737,578.59 R₣$820.12
Pakistan 2020 World Bank National Accounts Data 188,900 PKR$1,080.91
India 2020 Ministry of Statistics and Program Implementation 151,760 IN₹$2,064.76

7. Demand

Population Size

220,892,331

National See all MSI countries
Close
Country Year Data Source Value
Cote d'Ivoire 2017 World Bank 24,437,469
Ghana 2019 World Bank 30,417,856
Kenya 2017 World Bank 50,221,473
Morocco 2017 World Bank 36,471,769
Mozambique 2018 World Bank 29,495,962
Nigeria 2017 World Bank 190,873,311
Tanzania 2019 World Bank 58,005,463
Uganda 2017 World Bank 41,487,000
Rwanda 2019 World Bank 12,626,950
Pakistan 2020 World Bank National Accounts Data 220,892,331
India 2021 Minsitry of Health and Family Welfare 1,361,343,000
Displayed In

All Indicators

Please enter 3 or more characters to begin search.

You can then click on a result to be taken to the relevant tab.

    The Market Shaping Indicators project is a work in progress. Significant gaps exist in data, which will be filled in future revisions. We would recommend checking back regularly for updates. We are keen to receive any feedback that you have on this Dashboard, which can be sent to [email protected].

    Using the Dashboard

    The indicators are split into 6 key areas, split into the Housing Value Chain: Land & Infrastructure, Construction & Investment, Sales & Rental, Maintenance & Management, Enabling Environment, Economic Environment and Demand, shown in the following tabs. Navigation can either be undertaken by using the tabs, or through the Search box immediately above. Above this, currency indicators can be toggled between USD and local currency.

    Users are able to further interrogate each indicator each indicator through clicking on the arrows to the left of each indicator. This expanded section shows the data elements that are used to produce the overall indicator value, dates of data collection, source details, hyperlinks to the original data where possible, and a breakdown of data quality. The majority of indicators are quality assessed, based on the whether they are: Interpretable; Relevant; Sufficiently Accurate; Representative; Timely; and Accessible. Indicators are scored on each of these criteria using a 1-4 star system, detailed below:

    ☆ – poor

    ☆☆ – moderate

    ☆☆☆ – good

    ☆☆☆☆ – excellent

    Finally, all data can be downloaded for further interrogation. By clicking on Switch to Data View at the top of the screen, users can filter data based on countries and columns, and download in a .csv or .xls file.

    Bottom 40

    Reall targets the Bottom 40% of the urban income pyramid, referred to as the ‘Bottom 40’ or ‘B40’. An objective of the MSI work was to better understand and demonstrate the market from the perspective of households in the Bottom 40, and as such data is aggregated for this group where possible. Data for this group can be particularly challenging to come across. In part, this is due to the difficulties in accurately defining this group using existing data sets. Additionally though, the informality of much of life for lower income groups severely limits data availability, particularly in terms of key data on jobs, housing and relationships with local government. This lack of data is a key blockage for further engagement at the lower end of the housing market, and resolving this is an objective of Reall’s and of the MSI work.

    Aggregations

    Data is shown at various different “aggregations”, which demonstrate the size and location of the population for which the data represents. This varies from national to city level in terms of population groupings. Additional aggregations exist for the Bottom 40, as detailed above, enabling a focused view on the lower end of the market.

    For relevant data, Reall’s partners are also included as an aggregation. This is not meant to be representative of the entire market, but recognises that as practitioners and experts within the lower end of the housing market of each country, their experiences are a useful check on other data sets, and an indication of the value when other data is not available.

    Terms of Use

    Reall Ltd (“Reall”) endeavours to make its data as freely available as possible in order to demonstrate the successes of its model and encourage other actors into the affordable homes movement. Reall provides the user with access to these data free of charge subject to the terms of this agreement.

    Users are encouraged to use the data to benefit themselves and others in creative ways.

    Unless specifically labelled otherwise, you are free to copy, distribute, adapt, display or include the data in other products for commercial or non-commercial purposes for no cost under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, with the additional terms below.  The basic terms may be accessed here. By using or downloading the data, users are agreeing to comply with the terms of a CC BY 4.0 licence, and also agreeing to the following mandatory and binding additions:

    – You agree to provide attribution to Reall in any published use of the data, including but not limited to articles, papers, blogs, books. Usage includes both direct publication of the existing data, along with any analysis undertaken by the user. This attribution should include Reall’s name and the following link – reall.net/dashboard. An electronic copy of all reports and publications based on the data should be shared with Reall ([email protected]).

    – When sharing or facilitating access to the data, you agree to include the same acknowledgement requirement in any sub-licences of the data that you grant, and a requirement that any sub-licences do the same. You may meet this requirement by providing the uniform resource locator (URL) to these terms of use.

    – Some datasets and indicators may be provided by third parties, and may not be redistributed or reused without the consent of the original data provider, or may be subject to additional terms and conditions. Where applicable, third party data is labelled as such, and usage conditions can be found on their respective websites.

    Until 2018, land prices in Pakistan were officially set by the Government based on District Commissioner (DC) rates – rates registered with the Property Registration Authorities but usually set lower (5 to 10 times) than the prevailing market prices. More recently, the Federal Board of Revenue (FBR) has introduced property valuation tables (published by the District Collector at the Revenue Department) that help inform the DC rates and ensure that disparities between these rates and prevailing market rates are minimized. In theory, these updated DC rates also inform the computation of accurate withholding tax on the sale/purchase of property and capital gains tax. In fact, however, the implementation of these updated DC rates has been challenging, owing to resistance from the existing network of property dealers and their clients who claim that the true essence of the Stamp Rules Act of 1899 requires consultation with the public when setting the DC rates. However, the Act itself is due for major revision as it relates to single-story dwellings and does not include any provision for upper-portion taxation rates.

    Furthermore, existing physical designs for affordable housing are inadequate for addressing the effects of rapid urbanization. Existing housing remains susceptible to risk, especially in lieu of environmental challenges. Approximately 10% of otherwise durable houses did not have access to adequate services, a figure which reflects poorly on previous housing efforts.

    Looking closely at indicators within the land title and assembly sub-domain revealed that while data values were available, they did not fare well from a quality standpoint. Future work requires stronger developer interaction to be able to effectively improve data quality and reliability. As an example, while data pertaining to property registration procedures is indicated on land authority portals, conversations with Reall partner firms revealed that values were not always reflective, with property registration processes, time and costs often much higher than stipulated and would require active intervention and follow-ups. While official provincial department portals indicated that it would range between 11-14 days to register residential property, Reall partner firms stated that it would require an average of 105 days for the same indicator.

    Of the 25 indicators in this group, 24 are currently populated.

    Indicator Data Source Aggregation Year Data Quality Data Accessibility Value
    Regulated minimum size of a residential plot in urban areas in square meters
    i
    The minimum size of a residential plot in urban areas in square meters as per legislation/regulation.
    Partners Urban 2021
    75.80
    Partners Partners 2021
    75.80
    Modulus Tech (Developer) Karachi 2021
    75.80
    EPL (Developer) Lahore 2021
    75.80
    AMC (Developer) Peshawar 2021
    75.80
    Potohar Builders Islamabad 2021
    75.80
    Smallest residential plot size
    i
    The smallest plot size (in square meters) available in a residential development by a developer / contractor.
    Partners Partners 2021
    37.9m2
    Modulus Tech (Developer) Karachi 2021
    50.5m2
    EPL (Developer) Lahore 2021
    75.8m2
    AMC (Developer) Peshawar 2021
    37.9m2
    Potohar Builders Islamabad 2021
    75.8m2
    Average land costs per m2
    i
    The average cost per square meter of unserviced land that is zoned for residential development in urban areas.
    Zameen.com Karachi 2021
    28,007 PKR$160.26
    Zameen.com Lahore 2021
    66,779 PKR$382.12
    Zameen.com Islamabad 2021
    61,247 PKR$350.46
    % Of land for residential development acquired from the private sector
    i
    Percentage of land acquired from the private sector by formal developers / contractors for residential developments in urban areas out of all the land that they acquired for residential developments in urban areas.
    Partners Partners 2021
    100%
    World Bank DBI geographic coverage index score ranking: Asia
    i
    The rank of the country's score on the World Bank's geographic coverage index within Africa/Asia. The geographic coverage index has four components: (1) How complete the coverage of the land registry is at the level of the largest business city. A score of 2 is assigned if all privately held land plots in the city are formally registered at the land registry; 0 if not. (2) How complete the coverage of the land registry is at the level of the economy. A score of 2 is assigned if all privately held land plots in the economy are formally registered at the land registry; 0 if not. (3) How complete the coverage of the mapping agency is at the level of the largest business city. A score of 2 is assigned if all privately held land plots in the city are mapped; 0 if not. (4) How complete the coverage of the mapping agency is at the level of the economy. A score of 2 is assigned if all privately held land plots in the economy are mapped; 0 if not. (5) The index ranges from 0 to 8, with higher values indicating greater geographic coverage in land ownership registration and cadastral mapping.
    World Bank Doing Business Indicator National 2020
    Tied 32 with 15 other countries out of 48
    World Bank Doing Business Indicator Karachi 2020
    Tied 32 with 15 other countries out of 48
    World Bank Doing Business Indicator Lahore 2020
    Tied 32 with 15 other countries out of 48
    World Bank DBI geographic coverage index score ranking: Global
    i
    The global rank of the country's score on the World Bank's geographic coverage index. The geographic coverage index has four components: (1) How complete the coverage of the land registry is at the level of the largest business city. A score of 2 is assigned if all privately held land plots in the city are formally registered at the land registry; 0 if not. (2) How complete the coverage of the land registry is at the level of the economy. A score of 2 is assigned if all privately held land plots in the economy are formally registered at the land registry; 0 if not. (3) How complete the coverage of the mapping agency is at the level of the largest business city. A score of 2 is assigned if all privately held land plots in the city are mapped; 0 if not. (4) How complete the coverage of the mapping agency is at the level of the economy. A score of 2 is assigned if all privately held land plots in the economy are mapped; 0 if not. The index ranges from 0 to 8, with higher values indicating greater geographic coverage in land ownership registration and cadastral mapping.
    World Bank Doing Business Indicator National 2020
    Tied 100 with 87 other countries out of 190
    World Bank Doing Business Indicator Karachi 2020
    Tied 100 with 87 other countries out of 190
    World Bank Doing Business Indicator Lahore 2020
    Tied 100 with 87 other countries out of 190
    World Bank DBI quality of land administration index ranking: Asia
    i
    The rank of the country's score on the World Bank's quality of land administration index within Africa/Asia. The quality of land administration index is composed of five other indices: the reliability of infrastructure, transparency of information, geographic coverage, land dispute resolution and equal access to property rights. Data are collected for each economys largest business city.
    World Bank Doing Business Indicator National 2020
    37 out of 48
    World Bank Doing Business Indicator Karachi 2020
    Tied 42 with 1 other country out of 48
    World Bank Doing Business Indicator Lahore 2020
    29 out of 48
    World Bank DBI quality of land administration index ranking: Global
    i
    The global rank of the country's score on the World Bank's quality of land administration index. The quality of land administration index is composed of five other indices: the reliability of infrastructure, transparency of information, geographic coverage, land dispute resolution and equal access to property rights. Data are collected for each economys largest business city.
    World Bank Doing Business Indicator National 2020
    129 out of 190
    World Bank Doing Business Indicator Karachi 2020
    Tied 151 with 10 other countries out of 190
    World Bank Doing Business Indicator Lahore 2020
    Tied 91 with 1 other country out of 190
    Number of procedures to register residential property
    i
    The number of procedures to register residential property. Assumptions about the sellers property: Is fully owned by the seller. Has no mortgages attached and has been under the same ownership for the past 10 years. Is registered in the land registry or cadastre, or both, and is free of title disputes. Is located in an urban residential zone and no rezoning is required. The property, consisting of land and a dwelling, will be transferred in its entirety. The dwelling is in good condition, complies with all safety standards, building codes and other legal requirements. The property will not be subject to renovations or additional construction following the purchase. Has no trees, natural water sources, natural reserves or historical monuments of any kind. Will not be used for special purposes, and no special permits are required. Has no occupants, and no other party holds a legal interest in it. Assumptions about procedures: A procedure is defined as any interaction of the buyer, the seller or their agents (if an agent is legally or in practice required) with external parties, including government agencies, inspectors, public notaries, architects, surveyors, among others. Interactions between company officers and employees are not considered. All procedures that are legally or in practice required for registering property are recorded, even if they may be avoided in exceptional cases. Each electronic procedure is counted as a separate procedure. Payment of capital gains tax can be counted as a separate procedure. If a procedure can be accelerated legally for an additional cost, the fastest procedure is chosen if that option is used by the majority of property owners. Although the buyer may use lawyers or other professionals where necessary in the registration process, it is assumed that the buyer does not employ an outside facilitator in the registration process unless legally or in practice required to do so.
    Provincial Land Authorities' and Revenue Departments National 2021
    4 to 9
    Partners Partners 2021
    6
    Pakistan Doing Business Karachi 2021
    6
    Punjab Land Records Authority Lahore 2021
    4
    Gul and Haider Advocates and Legal Consultants Peshawar 2013
    9
    Islamabad Capital Territory Administration (ICTA) Islamabad 2021
    7
    Name of residential property registration procedure that takes the longest to complete
    i
    The name of the procedure that takes the longest to complete out of all procedures required to register residential property. Assumptions about the sellers property: Is fully owned by the seller. Has no mortgages attached and has been under the same ownership for the past 10 years. Is registered in the land registry or cadastre, or both, and is free of title disputes. Is located in an urban residential zone and no rezoning is required. The property, consisting of land and a dwelling, will be transferred in its entirety. The dwelling is in good condition, complies with all safety standards, building codes and other legal requirements. The property will not be subject to renovations or additional construction following the purchase. Has no trees, natural water sources, natural reserves or historical monuments of any kind. Will not be used for special purposes, and no special permits are required. Has no occupants, and no other party holds a legal interest in it. Assumptions about procedures: A procedure is defined as any interaction of the buyer, the seller or their agents (if an agent is legally or in practice required) with external parties, including government agencies, inspectors, public notaries, architects, surveyors, among others. Interactions between company officers and employees are not considered. All procedures that are legally or in practice required for registering property are recorded, even if they may be avoided in exceptional cases. Each electronic procedure is counted as a separate procedure. Payment of capital gains tax can be counted as a separate procedure. If a procedure can be accelerated legally for an additional cost, the fastest procedure is chosen if that option is used by the majority of property owners. Although the buyer may use lawyers or other professionals where necessary in the registration process, it is assumed that the buyer does not employ an outside facilitator in the registration process unless legally or in practice required to do so. Assumptions about time: Time is recorded in calendar days. The measure captures the median duration that property lawyers, notaries or registry officials indicate is necessary to complete a procedure. It is assumed that the minimum time required for each procedure is one day, except for procedures that can be fully completed online, for which the time required is recorded as half a day. Although procedures may take place simultaneously, they cannot start on the same day (again except for procedures that can be fully completed online). It is assumed that the buyer does not waste time and commits to completing each remaining procedure without delay. If a procedure can be accelerated for an additional cost, the fastest legal procedure available and used by the majority of property owners is chosen. It is assumed that the parties involved are aware of all requirements and their sequence from the beginning. Time spent on gathering information is not considered. If time estimates differ among sources, the median reported value is used.
    Provincial Land Authorities' and Revenue Departments National 2021
    Processing, executing and obtaining a sales certificate from the sub-registrars office
    Partners Partners 2021
    Varies based on Province
    Pakistan Doing Business Karachi 2021
    Obtaining a Sales Certificate
    Punjab Land Records Authority Lahore 2021
    Execution & Registration of a Deed Before Registration Authority & Mutation in Revenue Record at Sub Registrar Office
    Gul and Haider Advocates and Legal Consultants Peshawar 2013
    Execution & Registration of a Deed Before Registration Authority/ Excise & Taxation Department
    Islamabad Capital Territory Administration (ICTA) Islamabad 2021
    Processing of Submitted Documents at the Office of the Sub-Registrar
    Time to register residential property (days)
    i
    The total time taken in days to complete all of the procedures required to register residential property. Assumptions about the sellers property: Is fully owned by the seller. Has no mortgages attached and has been under the same ownership for the past 10 years. Is registered in the land registry or cadastre, or both, and is free of title disputes. Is located in an urban residential zone and no rezoning is required. The property, consisting of land and a dwelling, will be transferred in its entirety. The dwelling is in good condition, complies with all safety standards, building codes and other legal requirements. The property will not be subject to renovations or additional construction following the purchase. Has no trees, natural water sources, natural reserves or historical monuments of any kind. Will not be used for special purposes, and no special permits are required. Has no occupants, and no other party holds a legal interest in it. Assumptions about procedures: A procedure is defined as any interaction of the buyer, the seller or their agents (if an agent is legally or in practice required) with external parties, including government agencies, inspectors, public notaries, architects, surveyors, among others. Interactions between company officers and employees are not considered. All procedures that are legally or in practice required for registering property are recorded, even if they may be avoided in exceptional cases. Each electronic procedure is counted as a separate procedure. Payment of capital gains tax can be counted as a separate procedure. If a procedure can be accelerated legally for an additional cost, the fastest procedure is chosen if that option is used by the majority of property owners. Although the buyer may use lawyers or other professionals where necessary in the registration process, it is assumed that the buyer does not employ an outside facilitator in the registration process unless legally or in practice required to do so. Assumptions about time: Time is recorded in calendar days. The measure captures the median duration that property lawyers, notaries or registry officials indicate is necessary to complete a procedure. It is assumed that the minimum time required for each procedure is one day, except for procedures that can be fully completed online, for which the time required is recorded as half a day. Although procedures may take place simultaneously, they cannot start on the same day (again except for procedures that can be fully completed online). It is assumed that the buyer does not waste time and commits to completing each remaining procedure without delay. If a procedure can be accelerated for an additional cost, the fastest legal procedure available and used by the majority of property owners is chosen. It is assumed that the parties involved are aware of all requirements and their sequence from the beginning. Time spent on gathering information is not considered. If time estimates differ among sources, the median reported value is used.
    Provincial Land Authorities' and Revenue Departments National 2021
    11 to 14
    Partners Partners 2021
    105
    Pakistan Doing Business Karachi 2021
    14
    Punjab Land Records Authority Lahore 2021
    11
    Gul and Haider Advocates and Legal Consultants Peshawar 2013
    53
    Cost to register residential property
    i
    The total cost to register residential property as a percentage of the value of the property. Assumptions about the sellers property: Is fully owned by the seller. Has no mortgages attached and has been under the same ownership for the past 10 years. Is registered in the land registry or cadastre, or both, and is free of title disputes. Is located in an urban residential zone and no rezoning is required. The property, consisting of land and a dwelling, will be transferred in its entirety. The dwelling is in good condition, complies with all safety standards, building codes and other legal requirements. The property will not be subject to renovations or additional construction following the purchase. Has no trees, natural water sources, natural reserves or historical monuments of any kind. Will not be used for special purposes, and no special permits are required. Has no occupants, and no other party holds a legal interest in it. Assumptions about procedures: A procedure is defined as any interaction of the buyer, the seller or their agents (if an agent is legally or in practice required) with external parties, including government agencies, inspectors, public notaries, architects, surveyors, among others. Interactions between company officers and employees are not considered. All procedures that are legally or in practice required for registering property are recorded, even if they may be avoided in exceptional cases. Each electronic procedure is counted as a separate procedure. Payment of capital gains tax can be counted as a separate procedure. If a procedure can be accelerated legally for an additional cost, the fastest procedure is chosen if that option is used by the majority of property owners. Although the buyer may use lawyers or other professionals where necessary in the registration process, it is assumed that the buyer does not employ an outside facilitator in the registration process unless legally or in practice required to do so. Assumptions about time: Time is recorded in calendar days. The measure captures the median duration that property lawyers, notaries or registry officials indicate is necessary to complete a procedure. It is assumed that the minimum time required for each procedure is one day, except for procedures that can be fully completed online, for which the time required is recorded as half a day. Although procedures may take place simultaneously, they cannot start on the same day (again except for procedures that can be fully completed online). It is assumed that the buyer does not waste time and commits to completing each remaining procedure without delay. If a procedure can be accelerated for an additional cost, the fastest legal procedure available and used by the majority of property owners is chosen. It is assumed that the parties involved are aware of all requirements and their sequence from the beginning. Time spent on gathering information is not considered. If time estimates differ among sources, the median reported value is used. Assumptions about the cost of the property: Cost is recorded as a percentage of the property value, assumed to be equivalent to 50 times income per capita. Only official costs required by law are recorded, including fees, transfer taxes, stamp duties and any other payment to the property registry, notaries, public agencies or lawyers. Other taxes, such as capital gains tax or value added tax (VAT), are excluded from the cost measure. However, in economies where transfer tax can be substituted by VAT, transfer tax will be recorded instead. Both costs borne by the buyer and the seller are included. If cost estimates differ among sources, the median reported value is used.
    Provincial Land Authorities' and Revenue Departments National 2021
    1% to 6% of property value
    Partners Partners 2021
    1% to 6% of property value
    Pakistan Doing Business Karachi 2021
    PKR 342,058, plus 1-6% of property value
    Punjab Land Records Authority Lahore 2021
    PKR 1,500 plus 6% property value (Town Fee: 1%, CVT: 2%, Stamp Duty: 3%)
    Gul and Haider Advocates and Legal Consultants Peshawar 2013
    Up to PKR 10,880 plus 5.5% property value (Stamp Duty: 3%, Transfer Tax: 2%, Registration fees: 0.5%)
    World Bank DBI transparency of information index ranking: Asia
    i
    The rank of the country's score on the World Bank's transparency of information index within Africa/Asia. The transparency of information index has 10 components: (1) Whether information on land ownership is made publicly available. A score of 1 is assigned if information on land ownership is accessible by anyone; 0 if access is restricted. (2) Whether the list of documents required for completing all types of property transactions is made easily available to the public. A score of 0.5 is assigned if the list of documents is easily accessible online or on a public board; 0 if it is not made available to the public or if it can be obtained only in person. (3) Whether the fee schedule for completing all types of property transactions is made easily available to the public. A score of 0.5 is assigned if the fee schedule is easily accessible online or on a public board free of charge; 0 if it is not made available to the public or if it can be obtained only in person. (4) Whether the immovable property agency formally specifies the time frame to deliver a legally binding document proving property ownership. A score of 0.5 is assigned if such service standard is accessible online or on a public board; 0 if it is not made available to the public or if it can be obtained only in person. (5) Whether there is a specific and independent mechanism for filing complaints about a problem that occurred at the agency in charge of immovable property registration. A score of 1 is assigned if there is a specific and independent mechanism for filing a complaint; 0 if there is only a general mechanism or no mechanism. (6) Whether there are publicly available official statistics tracking the number of transactions at the immovable property registration agency in the largest business city. A score of 0.5 is assigned if statistics are published about property transfers in the largest business city in the past calendar year at the latest on May 1st of the following year; 0 if no such statistics are made publicly available. (7) Whether maps of land plots are made publicly available. A score of 0.5 is assigned if cadastral plans are accessible by anyone; 0 if access is restricted. (8) Whether the fee schedule for accessing cadastral plans is made easily available to the public. A score of 0.5 is assigned if the fee schedule is easily accessible online or on a public board free of charge; 0 if it is not made available to the public or if it can be obtained only in person. (9) Whether the mapping agency formally specifies the time frame to deliver an updated cadastral plan. A score of 0.5 is assigned if the service standard is accessible online or on a public board; 0 if it is not made available to the public or if it can be obtained only in person. (10) Whether there is a specific and independent mechanism for filing complaints about a problem that occurred at the mapping agency. A score of 0.5 is assigned if there is a specific and independent mechanism for filing a complaint; 0 if there is only a general mechanism or no mechanism. The index ranges from 0 to 6, with higher values indicating greater transparency in the land administration system.
    World Bank Doing Business Indicator National 2020
    11 out of 48
    World Bank Doing Business Indicator Karachi 2020
    Tied 16 with 5 other countries out of 48
    World Bank Doing Business Indicator Lahore 2020
    Tied 2 with 1 other country out of 48
    World Bank DBI transparency of information index ranking: Global
    i
    The global rank of the country's score on the World Bank's transparency of information index. The transparency of information index has 10 components: (1) Whether information on land ownership is made publicly available. A score of 1 is assigned if information on land ownership is accessible by anyone; 0 if access is restricted. (2) Whether the list of documents required for completing all types of property transactions is made easily available to the public. A score of 0.5 is assigned if the list of documents is easily accessible online or on a public board; 0 if it is not made available to the public or if it can be obtained only in person. (3) Whether the fee schedule for completing all types of property transactions is made easily available to the public. A score of 0.5 is assigned if the fee schedule is easily accessible online or on a public board free of charge; 0 if it is not made available to the public or if it can be obtained only in person. (4) Whether the immovable property agency formally specifies the time frame to deliver a legally binding document proving property ownership. A score of 0.5 is assigned if such service standard is accessible online or on a public board; 0 if it is not made available to the public or if it can be obtained only in person. (5) Whether there is a specific and independent mechanism for filing complaints about a problem that occurred at the agency in charge of immovable property registration. A score of 1 is assigned if there is a specific and independent mechanism for filing a complaint; 0 if there is only a general mechanism or no mechanism. (6) Whether there are publicly available official statistics tracking the number of transactions at the immovable property registration agency in the largest business city. A score of 0.5 is assigned if statistics are published about property transfers in the largest business city in the past calendar year at the latest on May 1st of the following year; 0 if no such statistics are made publicly available. (7) Whether maps of land plots are made publicly available. A score of 0.5 is assigned if cadastral plans are accessible by anyone; 0 if access is restricted. (8) Whether the fee schedule for accessing cadastral plans is made easily available to the public. A score of 0.5 is assigned if the fee schedule is easily accessible online or on a public board free of charge; 0 if it is not made available to the public or if it can be obtained only in person. (9) Whether the mapping agency formally specifies the time frame to deliver an updated cadastral plan. A score of 0.5 is assigned if the service standard is accessible online or on a public board; 0 if it is not made available to the public or if it can be obtained only in person. (10) Whether there is a specific and independent mechanism for filing complaints about a problem that occurred at the mapping agency. A score of 0.5 is assigned if there is a specific and independent mechanism for filing a complaint; 0 if there is only a general mechanism or no mechanism. The index ranges from 0 to 6, with higher values indicating greater transparency in the land administration system.
    World Bank Doing Business Indicator National 2020
    38 out of 190
    World Bank Doing Business Indicator Karachi 2020
    Tied 59 with 21 other countries out of 190
    World Bank Doing Business Indicator Lahore 2020
    Tied 8 with 3 other countries out of 190
    % Of residential development projects where developers are paying for bulk infrastructure or the building of roads
    i
    The share of site-based residential development projects in urban areas that are currently ongoing and have not yet been completed where the developer has had to provide bulk infrastructure or build roads. This indicator does not include projects where construction occurred on multiple individual plots in an existing community. Bulk infrastructure includes the provision of electrical and water mains connections to a site/plot. Road building includes all roads built to connect to a municipal roadway.
    Partners Partners 2021
    100%
    % Of households without access to improved drinking water services
    i
    The share of households without access to improved drinking water services. According to DHS 7, improved drinking water services include: piped into dwelling; piped to yard/plot; public tap/standpiper; piped to neighbour; tube well or borehole; protected well; protected spring; rainwater; tanker truck, cart with small tank; bottled water.
    The DHS Program National 2018
    5%
    Pakistan Social and Living Standard Measurement (PSLM) Urban 2019
    1.31%
    The DHS Program Bottom 40 2018
    8.32%
    Pakistan Social and Living Standard Measurement (PSLM) Karachi 2019
    1.45%
    Pakistan Social and Living Standard Measurement (PSLM) Lahore 2019
    0.40%
    Pakistan Social and Living Standard Measurement (PSLM) Peshawar 2019
    5.86%
    Pakistan Social and Living Standard Measurement (PSLM) Quetta 2019
    0.20%
    Pakistan Social and Living Standard Measurement (PSLM) Islamabad 2019
    1.33%
    % Of households without access to improved sanitation services
    i
    The share of households without access to an improved sanitation facility. According to DHS 7, improved sanitation facilities include: flush - to piped sewer system; flush - to septic tank; flush - to pit latrine; flush - don't know where; flush - somewhere else; pit latrine - ventilated improved pit (VIP); pit latrine - with slab; composting toilet.
    The DHS Program National 2018
    31%
    The DHS Program Urban 2018