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Nigeria - Market Shaping Indicators

View Reall projects in Nigeria

As a priority country, in Nigeria Reall is committed to expanding end-user housing finance solutions to 2 million previously excluded low-income and informally employed borrowers by 2025; addressing critical governance, policy, standards and regulatory barriers that impede the market, achieving positive change for 1 million people by 2025; resolving data voids and evidence gaps that have inhibited more effective solutions for affordable housing; and building capacity for low-carbon building, renewable energy and green finance in the affordable housing space. CAHF has been active in Nigeria since 2010, when it published a study on Nigeria’s Housing Sector, in collaboration with Enhancing Financial Innovation and Access (EFInA). More recently, CAHF’s main partner in Nigeria has been the Nigeria Mortgage Refinance Company.

Country Overview

The disruptive impact of COVID-19 is broad, extensive and pervades the entire economic value-chain in Nigeria. This was worsened in the first quarter of 2020 by the crash in oil prices to its lowest levels in decades. The combination of the reduced forex earnings through the oil sector, pressure to service external debt and the continued pandemic environment has contributed to the challenge of housing in Nigeria.

The widening gap between the housing demand and supply is caused by a multiplicity of factors including land acquisition, high cost of building materials, scarcity of accessible affordable housing finance and lack of proper land regulation and policy. The Nigerian government in its efforts to ameliorate the negative impact of the pandemic and oil crisis, revised the Economic Sustainability Plan (ESP) to provide appropriate and sustainable solutions for the country. Family Homes Fund (FHF) has recently been appointed by the CBN to manage the execution of the social housing component of the ESP that is expected to produce 300,000 additional units each year.

State of Housing Data

Over the last twelve months, there has been a general consensus towards improving the sharing of data within the sector. Following the partnership engineered by the Real Estate Developers Association of Nigeria (REDAN) with both government and private sector players including the Federal Mortgage Bank of Nigeria (FMBN), Nigeria Mortgage Refinance Company (NMRC), Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN), National Bureau of Statistics (NBS), Nigeria Population Commission (NPopC), Pison Housing Company, Value Chain Mortgage Affordability Platform (VC-MAP) and many others. The Housing Market Information Portal (HMIP) has been designated as a primary data repository for the sector, hosted by the NMRC.

Text on this page is based on the MSI Nigeria Country Profile ¹, drawn from Centre for Affordable Housing Finance (2020). Housing Finance in Africa Yearbook: 11th Edition 2020 ², with additional content from CAHF and Reall.

Key Indicators

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1. Land & Infrastructure

% of urban bottom 40 households without access to basic sanitation services

83.1

Bottom 40 See all MSI countries
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Country Year Data Source Value
Cote d'Ivoire 2012 DHS 96.5%
Ghana 2014 DHS 93.15%
Kenya 2014 DHS 88.25%
Morocco 2004 DHS 52.05%
Mozambique 2011 DHS 95.6%
Nigeria 2018 DHS 83.1%
Tanzania 2017 DHS 37%
Uganda 2016 DHS 94.5%
Rwanda 2016 National Institute of Statistics Rwanda (NISR) 13.13%
Pakistan 2018 The DHS Program 2.75%
India 2018 NSSO 76th Round 0.2%

2. Construction & Investment

% of urban population living in slums, informal settlements, or inadequate dwellings

Close
Country Year Data Source Value
Cote d'Ivoire N/A
Ghana N/A
Kenya N/A
Morocco N/A
Mozambique N/A
Nigeria N/A
Tanzania N/A
Uganda N/A
Rwanda 2018 World Bank 42.1%
Pakistan N/A
India 2018 NSSO 76th Round 35%

3. Sales & Rental

Number of residential mortgages outstanding

32,260

National See all MSI countries
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Country Year Data Source Value
Kenya 2019 Central Bank of Kenya 27,993
Nigeria 2019 NMRC 32,260
Tanzania 2019 Bank of Tanzania and Tanzania Mortgage Refinance Company Limited 5,460
Rwanda 2020 National Bank of Rwanda (NBR) 44,177
Pakistan 2019 State Bank of Pakistan - Housing Finance Data Review 58,620
India 2020 Reserve Bank of India 9,817,180

3. Sales & Rental

Price of the cheapest, newly built dwelling by a formal developer or contractor

2,900,000 NGN$7,651.72

Urban See all MSI countries
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Country Year Data Source Value
Cote d'Ivoire 2018 Site d'annonce et promotion dans l'immobilier en Côte d'Ivoire 15,500,000 CFA$27,087.48
Ghana 2019 Damax Construction Co. Ltd 108,704 GH₵$19,621.66
Kenya 2019 Tsavo Real Estate 4,000,000 Ksh$37,037.04
Morocco 2019 Various real estate websites 250,000 DH$27,027.03
Mozambique 2016 Casa Minha 3,418,491 MZ$48,147.76
Nigeria 2019 Millard Fuller Foundation; Shelter Origins 2,900,000 NGN$7,651.72
Tanzania 2018 CAHF 37,966,107 TZS$16,508.58
Uganda 2019 Various property developers 125,000,000 UGX$34,097.11
Rwanda 2020 Marchal Real Estate Developers 10,000,000 R₣$11,119.14
Pakistan 2021 Partners 2,500,000 PKR$14,305.33
India 2022 Real estate websites and industry experts 160,000 IN₹$2,176.87

3. Sales & Rental

% of national households that rent their dwelling

21.8

National See all MSI countries
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Country Year Data Source Value
Ghana 2017 Ghana Statistical Service 28%
Kenya 2019 Central Bank of Kenya, Kenya National Bureau of Statistics, FSD Kenya 35.01%
Morocco 2014 High Commission for Planning; World Bank 18.5%
Nigeria 2018 World Bank; Nigeria National Bureau of Statistics 21.8%
Tanzania 2017 National Bureau of Statistics 80.56%
Uganda 2016 DHS 53.45%
Rwanda 2020 Access to Finance Rwanda (AFR) and National Institute of Statistics Rwanda (NISR) 8.94%
Pakistan 2017 Population and Housing Census 11.53%
India 2018 NSSO 76th Round 13%

5. Enabling Environment

Ease of Doing Business Index Rank: Global

131

National See all MSI countries
Close
Country Year Data Source Value
Cote d'Ivoire 2020 World Bank 110
Ghana 2020 World Bank 118
Kenya 2019 World Bank Ease of Doing Business 61
Morocco 2020 World Bank 53
Mozambique 2019 World Bank 74
Nigeria 2020 World Bank 131
Tanzania 2020 World Bank 141
Uganda 2020 World Bank 116
Rwanda 2020 World Bank Ease of Doing Business Indicators 38 out of 190
Pakistan 2020 World Bank Doing Business Indicator 108 out of 190
India 2020 World Bank 63 out of 190

6. Economic Environment

GDP Per Capita

659,159 NGN$1,739.21

National See all MSI countries
Close
Country Year Data Source Value
Cote d'Ivoire 2018 World Bank 1,024,171 CFA$1,789.82
Ghana 2019 World Bank 11,489 GH₵$2,073.83
Kenya 2018 World Bank 173,272 Ksh$1,604.37
Morocco 2018 World Bank 30,725 DH$3,321.62
Mozambique 2018 World Bank 30,772 MZ$433.41
Nigeria 2018 World Bank 659,159 NGN$1,739.21
Tanzania 2018 National Bureau of Statistics; World Bank 2,297,020 TZS$998.80
Uganda 2018 World Bank 2,357,327 UGX$643.02
Rwanda 2019 World Bank 737,578.59 R₣$820.12
Pakistan 2020 World Bank National Accounts Data 188,900 PKR$1,080.91
India 2020 Ministry of Statistics and Program Implementation 151,760 IN₹$2,064.76

7. Demand

Population Size

190,873,311

National See all MSI countries
Close
Country Year Data Source Value
Cote d'Ivoire 2017 World Bank 24,437,469
Ghana 2019 World Bank 30,417,856
Kenya 2017 World Bank 50,221,473
Morocco 2017 World Bank 36,471,769
Mozambique 2018 World Bank 29,495,962
Nigeria 2017 World Bank 190,873,311
Tanzania 2019 World Bank 58,005,463
Uganda 2017 World Bank 41,487,000
Rwanda 2019 World Bank 12,626,950
Pakistan 2020 World Bank National Accounts Data 220,892,331
India 2021 Minsitry of Health and Family Welfare 1,361,343,000
Displayed In

All Indicators

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You can then click on a result to be taken to the relevant tab.

    The Market Shaping Indicators project is a work in progress. Significant gaps exist in data, which will be filled in future revisions. We would recommend checking back regularly for updates. We are keen to receive any feedback that you have on this Dashboard, which can be sent to [email protected].

    Using the Dashboard

    The indicators are split into 6 key areas, split into the Housing Value Chain: Land & Infrastructure, Construction & Investment, Sales & Rental, Maintenance & Management, Enabling Environment, Economic Environment and Demand, shown in the following tabs. Navigation can either be undertaken by using the tabs, or through the Search box immediately above. Above this, currency indicators can be toggled between USD and local currency.

    Users are able to further interrogate each indicator each indicator through clicking on the arrows to the left of each indicator. This expanded section shows the data elements that are used to produce the overall indicator value, dates of data collection, source details, hyperlinks to the original data where possible, and a breakdown of data quality. The majority of indicators are quality assessed, based on the whether they are: Interpretable; Relevant; Sufficiently Accurate; Representative; Timely; and Accessible. Indicators are scored on each of these criteria using a 1-4 star system, detailed below:

    ☆ – poor

    ☆☆ – moderate

    ☆☆☆ – good

    ☆☆☆☆ – excellent

    Finally, all data can be downloaded for further interrogation. By clicking on Switch to Data View at the top of the screen, users can filter data based on countries and columns, and download in a .csv or .xls file.

    Bottom 40

    Reall targets the Bottom 40% of the urban income pyramid, referred to as the ‘Bottom 40’ or ‘B40’. An objective of the MSI work was to better understand and demonstrate the market from the perspective of households in the Bottom 40, and as such data is aggregated for this group where possible. Data for this group can be particularly challenging to come across. In part, this is due to the difficulties in accurately defining this group using existing data sets. Additionally though, the informality of much of life for lower income groups severely limits data availability, particularly in terms of key data on jobs, housing and relationships with local government. This lack of data is a key blockage for further engagement at the lower end of the housing market, and resolving this is an objective of Reall’s and of the MSI work.

    Aggregations

    Data is shown at various different “aggregations”, which demonstrate the size and location of the population for which the data represents. This varies from national to city level in terms of population groupings. Additional aggregations exist for the Bottom 40, as detailed above, enabling a focused view on the lower end of the market.

    For relevant data, Reall’s partners are also included as an aggregation. This is not meant to be representative of the entire market, but recognises that as practitioners and experts within the lower end of the housing market of each country, their experiences are a useful check on other data sets, and an indication of the value when other data is not available.

    Terms of Use

    Reall Ltd (“Reall”) endeavours to make its data as freely available as possible in order to demonstrate the successes of its model and encourage other actors into the affordable homes movement. Reall provides the user with access to these data free of charge subject to the terms of this agreement.

    Users are encouraged to use the data to benefit themselves and others in creative ways.

    Unless specifically labelled otherwise, you are free to copy, distribute, adapt, display or include the data in other products for commercial or non-commercial purposes for no cost under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, with the additional terms below.  The basic terms may be accessed here. By using or downloading the data, users are agreeing to comply with the terms of a CC BY 4.0 licence, and also agreeing to the following mandatory and binding additions:

    – You agree to provide attribution to Reall in any published use of the data, including but not limited to articles, papers, blogs, books. Usage includes both direct publication of the existing data, along with any analysis undertaken by the user. This attribution should include Reall’s name and the following link – reall.net/dashboard. An electronic copy of all reports and publications based on the data should be shared with Reall ([email protected]).

    – When sharing or facilitating access to the data, you agree to include the same acknowledgement requirement in any sub-licences of the data that you grant, and a requirement that any sub-licences do the same. You may meet this requirement by providing the uniform resource locator (URL) to these terms of use.

    – Some datasets and indicators may be provided by third parties, and may not be redistributed or reused without the consent of the original data provider, or may be subject to additional terms and conditions. Where applicable, third party data is labelled as such, and usage conditions can be found on their respective websites.

    Land

    The Land Use Decree 6 of 1978 vests all land to each State Governor, and hinders most Nigerians’ ability to acquire land ¹. The formality of the title system delays land registration as every process and transaction requires consent from the State Governor ².

    Infrastructure

    According to the 2020 World Bank Doing Business report, Nigeria ranks 171 out of 190 countries in getting electricity, and electricity access is seen as one of the major constraints for the private sector. It is estimated that 44 percent of households are without access to basic electricity, compared to 84 percent of the households in the Urban Bottom 40 of the income pyramid. The Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) estimates that 83 percent of the households in the Urban Bottom 40 are living without access to basic sanitation services and 55 percent without access to basic drinking water services. According to the Africa Infrastructure Country Diagnostic, addressing Nigeria’s infrastructure challenges will require sustained expenditure of almost US$14.2 billion per year ³.

    Of the 23 indicators in this group, 12 are currently populated.

    Indicator Data Source Aggregation Year Data Quality Data Accessibility Value
    Regulated minimum size of a residential plot in urban areas in square meters
    i
    The minimum size of a residential plot in urban areas in square meters as per legislation/regulation.
    PropertyPro; NigeriaPropertyCentre Urban 2019
    465
    % of land for residential development acquired from the private sector
    i
    Percentage of land acquired from the private sector by formal developers / contractors for residential developments in urban areas out of all the land that they acquired for residential developments in urban areas.
    Millard Fuller Foundation MFF 2018 Not rated Not rated 100.00%
    Number of procedures to register residential property Millard Fuller Foundation MFF 2020 Not rated Not rated 9
    Name of residential property registration procedure that takes the longest to complete
    i
    The name of the procedure that takes the longest to complete out of all procedures required to register residential property. Assumptions about the sellers property: Is fully owned by the seller. Has no mortgages attached and has been under the same ownership for the past 10 years. Is registered in the land registry or cadastre, or both, and is free of title disputes. Is located in an urban residential zone and no rezoning is required. The property, consisting of land and a dwelling, will be transferred in its entirety. The dwelling is in good condition, complies with all safety standards, building codes and other legal requirements. The property will not be subject to renovations or additional construction following the purchase. Has no trees, natural water sources, natural reserves or historical monuments of any kind. Will not be used for special purposes, and no special permits are required. Has no occupants, and no other party holds a legal interest in it. Assumptions about procedures: A procedure is defined as any interaction of the buyer, the seller or their agents (if an agent is legally or in practice required) with external parties, including government agencies, inspectors, public notaries, architects, surveyors, among others. Interactions between company officers and employees are not considered. All procedures that are legally or in practice required for registering property are recorded, even if they may be avoided in exceptional cases. Each electronic procedure is counted as a separate procedure. Payment of capital gains tax can be counted as a separate procedure. If a procedure can be accelerated legally for an additional cost, the fastest procedure is chosen if that option is used by the majority of property owners. Although the buyer may use lawyers or other professionals where necessary in the registration process, it is assumed that the buyer does not employ an outside facilitator in the registration process unless legally or in practice required to do so. Assumptions about time: Time is recorded in calendar days. The measure captures the median duration that property lawyers, notaries or registry officials indicate is necessary to complete a procedure. It is assumed that the minimum time required for each procedure is one day, except for procedures that can be fully completed online, for which the time required is recorded as half a day. Although procedures may take place simultaneously, they cannot start on the same day (again except for procedures that can be fully completed online). It is assumed that the buyer does not waste time and commits to completing each remaining procedure without delay. If a procedure can be accelerated for an additional cost, the fastest legal procedure available and used by the majority of property owners is chosen. It is assumed that the parties involved are aware of all requirements and their sequence from the beginning. Time spent on gathering information is not considered. If time estimates differ among sources, the median reported value is used.
    Millard Fuller Foundation MFF 2019 Not rated Not rated Processing and collection of Certificates of Occupancy
    Time to register residential property (days)
    i
    The total time taken in days to complete all of the procedures required to register residential property. Assumptions about the sellers property: Is fully owned by the seller. Has no mortgages attached and has been under the same ownership for the past 10 years. Is registered in the land registry or cadastre, or both, and is free of title disputes. Is located in an urban residential zone and no rezoning is required. The property, consisting of land and a dwelling, will be transferred in its entirety. The dwelling is in good condition, complies with all safety standards, building codes and other legal requirements. The property will not be subject to renovations or additional construction following the purchase. Has no trees, natural water sources, natural reserves or historical monuments of any kind. Will not be used for special purposes, and no special permits are required. Has no occupants, and no other party holds a legal interest in it. Assumptions about procedures: A procedure is defined as any interaction of the buyer, the seller or their agents (if an agent is legally or in practice required) with external parties, including government agencies, inspectors, public notaries, architects, surveyors, among others. Interactions between company officers and employees are not considered. All procedures that are legally or in practice required for registering property are recorded, even if they may be avoided in exceptional cases. Each electronic procedure is counted as a separate procedure. Payment of capital gains tax can be counted as a separate procedure. If a procedure can be accelerated legally for an additional cost, the fastest procedure is chosen if that option is used by the majority of property owners. Although the buyer may use lawyers or other professionals where necessary in the registration process, it is assumed that the buyer does not employ an outside facilitator in the registration process unless legally or in practice required to do so. Assumptions about time: Time is recorded in calendar days. The measure captures the median duration that property lawyers, notaries or registry officials indicate is necessary to complete a procedure. It is assumed that the minimum time required for each procedure is one day, except for procedures that can be fully completed online, for which the time required is recorded as half a day. Although procedures may take place simultaneously, they cannot start on the same day (again except for procedures that can be fully completed online). It is assumed that the buyer does not waste time and commits to completing each remaining procedure without delay. If a procedure can be accelerated for an additional cost, the fastest legal procedure available and used by the majority of property owners is chosen. It is assumed that the parties involved are aware of all requirements and their sequence from the beginning. Time spent on gathering information is not considered. If time estimates differ among sources, the median reported value is used.
    Millard Fuller Foundation MFF 2020 Not rated Not rated 1.63
    % of households without access to improved drinking water services
    i
    The share of households without access to improved drinking water services. According to DHS 7, these include: piped into dwelling piped to yard/plot; public tap/standpipe; piped to neighbour; tube well or borehole; protected well; protected spring; rainwater; tanker truck, cart with small tank; bottled water
    World Bank National 2017
    28.62%
    DHS Bottom 40 2018
    54.55%
    % of households without access to improved sanitation services
    i
    The share of households without access to an improved sanitation facility. According to DHS 7, these include: flush - to piped sewer system; flush - to septic tank; flush - to pit latrine; flush - don't know where; pit latrine - ventilated improved pit (VIP); pit latrine - with slab; composting toilet
    World Bank National 2017
    60.83%
    DHS Bottom 40 2018
    83.10%
    % of households without access to electricity
    i
    The share of households without access to electricity in their dwelling.
    World Bank National 2017
    43.50%
    DHS Bottom 40 2018
    83.65%
    Transport as a % of household expenditure
    i
    Expenditure on transport as a share of total household expenditure.
    Nigeria National Bureau of Statistics National 2019
    6.44%
    Smallest residential plot size
    i
    The smallest plot size (in square meters) available in a residential development by a developer / contractor.
    - - -
    Average land costs per m2
    i
    The average cost per square meter of unserviced land that is zoned for residential development in urban areas.
    - - -
    World Bank DBI geographic coverage index score ranking: Africa
    i
    The rank of the country's score on the World Bank's geographic coverage index within Africa. The geographic coverage index has four components: (1) How complete the coverage of the land registry is at the level of the largest business city. A score of 2 is assigned if all privately held land plots in the city are formally registered at the land registry; 0 if not. (2) How complete the coverage of the land registry is at the level of the economy. A score of 2 is assigned if all privately held land plots in the economy are formally registered at the land registry; 0 if not. (3) How complete the coverage of the mapping agency is at the level of the largest business city. A score of 2 is assigned if all privately held land plots in the city are mapped; 0 if not. (4) How complete the coverage of the mapping agency is at the level of the economy. A score of 2 is assigned if all privately held land plots in the economy are mapped; 0 if not. (5) The index ranges from 0 to 8, with higher values indicating greater geographic coverage in land ownership registration and cadastral mapping.
    - - -
    World Bank DBI geographic coverage index score ranking: Global
    i
    The global rank of the country's score on the World Bank's geographic coverage index. The geographic coverage index has four components: (1) How complete the coverage of the land registry is at the level of the largest business city. A score of 2 is assigned if all privately held land plots in the city are formally registered at the land registry; 0 if not. (2) How complete the coverage of the land registry is at the level of the economy. A score of 2 is assigned if all privately held land plots in the economy are formally registered at the land registry; 0 if not. (3) How complete the coverage of the mapping agency is at the level of the largest business city. A score of 2 is assigned if all privately held land plots in the city are mapped; 0 if not. (4) How complete the coverage of the mapping agency is at the level of the economy. A score of 2 is assigned if all privately held land plots in the economy are mapped; 0 if not. The index ranges from 0 to 8, with higher values indicating greater geographic coverage in land ownership registration and cadastral mapping.
    - - -
    World Bank DBI quality of land administration index ranking: Africa
    i
    The rank of the country's score on the World Bank's quality of land administration index within Africa. The quality of land administration index is composed of five other indices: the reliability of infrastructure, transparency of information, geographic coverage, land dispute resolution and equal access to property rights. Data are collected for each economys largest business city.
    - - -
    World Bank DBI quality of land administration index ranking: Global
    i
    The global rank of the country's score on the World Bank's quality of land administration index. The quality of land administration index is composed of five other indices: the reliability of infrastructure, transparency of information, geographic coverage, land dispute resolution and equal access to property rights. Data are collected for each economys largest business city.
    - - -
    Total number of residential properties with a title deed
    i
    The total number of residential properties that have a title deed as per the deeds registry.
    - - -
    Cost to register residential property
    i
    The total cost to register residential property as a percentage of the value of the property. Assumptions about the sellers property: Is fully owned by the seller. Has no mortgages attached and has been under the same ownership for the past 10 years. Is registered in the land registry or cadastre, or both, and is free of title disputes. Is located in an urban residential zone and no rezoning is required. The property, consisting of land and a dwelling, will be transferred in its entirety. The dwelling is in good condition, complies with all safety standards, building codes and other legal requirements. The property will not be subject to renovations or additional construction following the purchase. Has no trees, natural water sources, natural reserves or historical monuments of any kind. Will not be used for special purposes, and no special permits are required. Has no occupants, and no other party holds a legal interest in it. Assumptions about procedures: A procedure is defined as any interaction of the buyer, the seller or their agents (if an agent is legally or in practice required) with external parties, including government agencies, inspectors, public notaries, architects, surveyors, among others. Interactions between company officers and employees are not considered. All procedures that are legally or in practice required for registering property are recorded, even if they may be avoided in exceptional cases. Each electronic procedure is counted as a separate procedure. Payment of capital gains tax can be counted as a separate procedure. If a procedure can be accelerated legally for an additional cost, the fastest procedure is chosen if that option is used by the majority of property owners. Although the buyer may use lawyers or other professionals where necessary in the registration process, it is assumed that the buyer does not employ an outside facilitator in the registration process unless legally or in practice required to do so. Assumptions about time: Time is recorded in calendar days. The measure captures the median duration that property lawyers, notaries or registry officials indicate is necessary to complete a procedure. It is assumed that the minimum time required for each procedure is one day, except for procedures that can be fully completed online, for which the time required is recorded as half a day. Although procedures may take place simultaneously, they cannot start on the same day (again except for procedures that can be fully completed online). It is assumed that the buyer does not waste time and commits to completing each remaining procedure without delay. If a procedure can be accelerated for an additional cost, the fastest legal procedure available and used by the majority of property owners is chosen. It is assumed that the parties involved are aware of all requirements and their sequence from the beginning. Time spent on gathering information is not considered. If time estimates differ among sources, the median reported value is used. Assumptions about the cost of the property: Cost is recorded as a percentage of the property value, assumed to be equivalent to 50 times income per capita. Only official costs required by law are recorded, including fees, transfer taxes, stamp duties and any other payment to the property registry, notaries, public agencies or lawyers. Other taxes, such as capital gains tax or value added tax (VAT), are excluded from the cost measure. However, in economies where transfer tax can be substituted by VAT, transfer tax will be recorded instead. Both costs borne by the buyer and the seller are included. If cost estimates differ among sources, the median reported value is used.
    - - -
    World Bank DBI transparency of information index ranking: Africa
    i
    The rank of the country's score on the World Bank's transparency of information index within Africa. The transparency of information index has 10 components: (1) Whether information on land ownership is made publicly available. A score of 1 is assigned if information on land ownership is accessible by anyone; 0 if access is restricted. (2) Whether the list of documents required for completing all types of property transactions is made easily available to the public. A score of 0.5 is assigned if the list of documents is easily accessible online or on a public board; 0 if it is not made available to the public or if it can be obtained only in person. (3) Whether the fee schedule for completing all types of property transactions is made easily available to the public. A score of 0.5 is assigned if the fee schedule is easily accessible online or on a public board free of charge; 0 if it is not made available to the public or if it can be obtained only in person. (4) Whether the immovable property agency formally specifies the time frame to deliver a legally binding document proving property ownership. A score of 0.5 is assigned if such service standard is accessible online or on a public board; 0 if it is not made available to the public or if it can be obtained only in person. (5) Whether there is a specific and independent mechanism for filing complaints about a problem that occurred at the agency in charge of immovable property registration. A score of 1 is assigned if there is a specific and independent mechanism for filing a complaint; 0 if there is only a general mechanism or no mechanism. (6) Whether there are publicly available official statistics tracking the number of transactions at the immovable property registration agency in the largest business city. A score of 0.5 is assigned if statistics are published about property transfers in the largest business city in the past calendar year at the latest on May 1st of the following year; 0 if no such statistics are made publicly available. (7) Whether maps of land plots are made publicly available. A score of 0.5 is assigned if cadastral plans are accessible by anyone; 0 if access is restricted. (8) Whether the fee schedule for accessing cadastral plans is made easily available to the public. A score of 0.5 is assigned if the fee schedule is easily accessible online or on a public board free of charge; 0 if it is not made available to the public or if it can be obtained only in person. (9) Whether the mapping agency formally specifies the time frame to deliver an updated cadastral plan. A score of 0.5 is assigned if the service standard is accessible online or on a public board; 0 if it is not made available to the public or if it can be obtained only in person. (10) Whether there is a specific and independent mechanism for filing complaints about a problem that occurred at the mapping agency. A score of 0.5 is assigned if there is a specific and independent mechanism for filing a complaint; 0 if there is only a general mechanism or no mechanism. The index ranges from 0 to 6, with higher values indicating greater transparency in the land administration system.
    - - -
    World Bank DBI transparency of information index ranking: Global
    i
    The global rank of the country's score on the World Bank's transparency of information index. The transparency of information index has 10 components: (1) Whether information on land ownership is made publicly available. A score of 1 is assigned if information on land ownership is accessible by anyone; 0 if access is restricted. (2) Whether the list of documents required for completing all types of property transactions is made easily available to the public. A score of 0.5 is assigned if the list of documents is easily accessible online or on a public board; 0 if it is not made available to the public or if it can be obtained only in person. (3) Whether the fee schedule for completing all types of property transactions is made easily available to the public. A score of 0.5 is assigned if the fee schedule is easily accessible online or on a public board free of charge; 0 if it is not made available to the public or if it can be obtained only in person. (4) Whether the immovable property agency formally specifies the time frame to deliver a legally binding document proving property ownership. A score of 0.5 is assigned if such service standard is accessible online or on a public board; 0 if it is not made available to the public or if it can be obtained only in person. (5) Whether there is a specific and independent mechanism for filing complaints about a problem that occurred at the agency in charge of immovable property registration. A score of 1 is assigned if there is a specific and independent mechanism for filing a complaint; 0 if there is only a general mechanism or no mechanism. (6) Whether there are publicly available official statistics tracking the number of transactions at the immovable property registration agency in the largest business city. A score of 0.5 is assigned if statistics are published about property transfers in the largest business city in the past calendar year at the latest on May 1st of the following year; 0 if no such statistics are made publicly available. (7) Whether maps of land plots are made publicly available. A score of 0.5 is assigned if cadastral plans are accessible by anyone; 0 if access is restricted. (8) Whether the fee schedule for accessing cadastral plans is made easily available to the public. A score of 0.5 is assigned if the fee schedule is easily accessible online or on a public board free of charge; 0 if it is not made available to the public or if it can be obtained only in person. (9) Whether the mapping agency formally specifies the time frame to deliver an updated cadastral plan. A score of 0.5 is assigned if the service standard is accessible online or on a public board; 0 if it is not made available to the public or if it can be obtained only in person. (10) Whether there is a specific and independent mechanism for filing complaints about a problem that occurred at the mapping agency. A score of 0.5 is assigned if there is a specific and independent mechanism for filing a complaint; 0 if there is only a general mechanism or no mechanism. The index ranges from 0 to 6, with higher values indicating greater transparency in the land administration system.
    - - -
    % of residential development projects where developers are paying for bulk infrastructure or the building of roads
    i
    The share of site-based residential development projects in urban areas that are currently ongoing and have not yet been completed where the developer has had to provide bulk infrastructure or build roads. This indicator does not include projects where construction occurred on multiple individual plots in an existing community. Bulk infrastructure includes the provision of electrical and water mains connections to a site/plot. Road building includes all roads built to connect to a municipal roadway.
    - - -
    % of households living in dwellings built using durable building materials (walls and roof) with inadequate services
    i
    The share of households living in dwellings where the main material of the walls and roof are finished, but the household does not have access to improved water services, improved sanitation facilities, or electricity. The definition of finished materials are as per the latest DHS questionnaire. Some of these may be country specific, but the major categories are standard. In DHS 7, finished wall materials included: cement; stone with lime/cement; bricks; cement blocks; covered adobe; wood planks/shingles. In DHS 7, finished roof materials included: metal/zinc; wood; calamine/cement fibre; ceramic tiles; cement; roofing shingles. According to DHS 7, improved water services include: piped into dwelling piped to yard/plot; public tap/standpipe; piped to neighbour; tube well or borehole; protected well; protected spring; rainwater; tanker truck, cart with small tank; bottled water. According to DHS 7, improved sanitation facilities include: flush - to piped sewer system; flush - to septic tank; flush - to pit latrine; flush - don't know where; pit latrine - ventilated improved pit (VIP); pit latrine - with slab; composting toilet.
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    World Bank DBI Reliability of infrastructure index ranking: Africa
    i
    The rank of the country's score on the World Bank's reliability of infrastructure index within Africa. The reliability of infrastructure index has six components: (1) In what format land title certificates are kept at the immovable property registry of the largest business city of the economy. A score of 2 is assigned if the majority of land title certificates are fully digital; 1 if scanned; 0 if kept in paper format. (2) Whether there is a comprehensive and functional electronic database for checking all encumbrances, caveats, charges or privileges affecting a registered propertys encumbrances. A score of 1 is assigned if yes; 0 if no. (3) In what format cadastral plans are kept at the mapping agency of the largest business city of the economy. A score of 2 is assigned if the majority of cadastral plans are fully digital; 1 if scanned; 0 if kept in paper format. (4) Whether there is a geographic information system (a fully digital geographic representation of the land plot) an electronic database for recording boundaries, checking plans and providing cadastral information. A score of 1 is assigned if yes; 0 if no. (5) Whether the land ownership registry and mapping agency are linked. A score of 1 is assigned if information about land ownership and maps is kept in a single database or in linked databases; 0 if there is no connection between different databases. (6) How immovable property is identified. A score of 1 is assigned if both the immovable property registry and the mapping agency use the same identification number for properties; 0 if there are multiple identifiers. The index ranges from 0 to 8, with higher values indicating a higher quality of infrastructure for ensuring the reliability of information on property titles and boundaries.
    - - -
    World Bank DBI Reliability of infrastructure index ranking: Global
    i
    The global rank of the country's score on the World Bank's reliability of infrastructure index. The reliability of infrastructure index has six components: (1) In what format land title certificates are kept at the immovable property registry of the largest business city of the economy. A score of 2 is assigned if the majority of land title certificates are fully digital; 1 if scanned; 0 if kept in paper format. (2) Whether there is a comprehensive and functional electronic database for checking all encumbrances, caveats, charges or privileges affecting a registered propertys encumbrances. A score of 1 is assigned if yes; 0 if no. (3) In what format cadastral plans are kept at the mapping agency of the largest business city of the economy. A score of 2 is assigned if the majority of cadastral plans are fully digital; 1 if scanned; 0 if kept in paper format. (4) Whether there is a geographic information system (a fully digital geographic representation of the land plot) an electronic database for recording boundaries, checking plans and providing cadastral information. A score of 1 is assigned if yes; 0 if no. (5) Whether the land ownership registry and mapping agency are linked. A score of 1 is assigned if information about land ownership and maps is kept in a single database or in linked databases; 0 if there is no connection between different databases. (6) How immovable property is identified. A score of 1 is assigned if both the immovable property registry and the mapping agency use the same identification number for properties; 0 if there are multiple identifiers. The index ranges from 0 to 8, with higher values indicating a higher quality of infrastructure for ensuring the reliability of information on property titles and boundaries.
    - - -

    Nigeria’s housing deficit continues to grow and is currently estimated at 17 million. Nigeria’s housing backlog continues to pose health challenges to many individuals as 60 to 79 percent of urban Nigerians are slum dwellers ¹, making them particularly vulnerable to the transmission of communicable diseases. The widening gap between housing demand and supply is caused by a multiplicity of factors including land acquisition, high cost of building materials, scarcity of accessible affordable housing finance and lack of proper land regulation and policy.

    Many private sector participants are however working to bridge the housing supply gap, including in the low income segment. An example is Reall partner Millard Fuller Foundation (MFF) which provides an opportunity for low income earners to purchase their houses through a variety of convenient payment options. In 2020, the price of the cheapest newly built dwelling by a formal developer was estimated to be ₦2.8 million (US$8 040) in an urban area, and was delivered by MFF ².

    There is a strong preference in Nigeria for using cement in all building construction, which has been a driver of cost increases in the past year. Due to a combination of supply disruptions and other factors, cement prices have fluctuated between NGN 2250 and NGN 4500 per 50kg bag in various parts of the country ³.

    The COVID-19 pandemic in no small measure affected the supply of housing, as the construction sector was not considered essential during initial lockdowns in 2020. In its most recent response to COVID-19, the CBN articulated the need to boost the housing sector through some deliberate interventions . Some of the interventions include provision of ₦1 trillion in loans to boost local manufacturing and production across critical sectors; enabling the rapid recovery of the economy by focusing on sectors that will generate massive employment and economic empowerment throughout the country; focusing on four main areas, namely light manufacturing, affordable housing, renewable energy, and cutting-edge research .

    Of the 19 indicators in this group, 8 are currently populated.

    Indicator Data Source Aggregation Year Data Quality Data Accessibility Value
    Number of people per sleeping room in formal dwellings
    i
    The number of people per sleeping room in formal dwellings. Sleeping rooms exclude kitchens, bathrooms, and garages. Formal dwellings are defined as dwellings where the main material used for the walls and roof of the dwelling are finished. The definition of finished materials are as per the latest DHS questionnaire. Some of these may be country specific, but the major categories are standard. In DHS 7, finished wall materials included: cement; stone with lime/cement; bricks; cement blocks; covered adobe; wood planks/shingles. In DHS 7, finished roof materials included: metal/zinc; wood; calamine/cement fibre; ceramic tiles; cement; roofing shingles.
    DHS Urban 2018
    2.11
    DHS Bottom 40 2018
    1.68
    Number of people per sleeping room in informal dwellings
    i
    The number of people per sleeping room in informal dwellings. Sleeping rooms exclude kitchens, bathrooms, and garages. Informal dwellings are defined as dwellings where the main material used for the walls or roof of the dwelling are unfinished. The definition of finished materials are as per the latest DHS questionnaire. Some of these may be country specific, but the major categories are standard. The definition of finished materials are as per the latest DHS questionnaire. Some of these may be country specific, but the major categories are standard. In DHS 7, finished wall materials included: cement; stone with lime/cement; bricks; cement blocks; covered adobe; wood planks/shingles. In DHS 7, finished roof materials included: metal/zinc; wood; calamine/cement fibre; ceramic tiles; cement; roofing shingles.
    DHS Urban 2018
    2.44
    DHS Bottom 40 2018
    2.55
    Number of households living in dwellings built using durable building materials (walls and roof)
    i
    The number of households living in dwellings where the main material of the walls and roof are finished. The definition of finished materials are as per the latest DHS questionnaire. Some of these may be country specific, but the major categories are standard. In DHS 7, finished wall materials included: cement; stone with lime/cement; bricks; cement blocks; covered adobe; wood planks/shingles. In DHS 7, finished roof materials included: metal/zinc; wood; calamine/cement fibre; ceramic tiles; cement; roofing shingles.
    DHS, C-GIDD National 2018
    2,129,609
    % of population living in slums, informal settlements, or inadequate dwellings
    i
    The percentage of the population that are part of households whose main dwelling meets the criteria of a slum/inadequate/informal dwelling. A household living in a slum/inadequate dwelling/informal settlement is defined as a group of individuals living under the same roof lacking one or more of the following conditions: access to improved water, access to improved sanitation, sufficient living area, and durability of housing. As per the UN definition, access to improved water requires the household to have access to: Piped connection to house or plot OR Public stand pipe serving no more than 5 households OR Bore hole OR Protected dug well OR Protected spring OR Rain water collection OR Bottle water (new). As per the UN definition, access to improved sanitation requires the household to have access to: Direct connection to public sewer OR Direct connection to septic tank OR Poor flush latrine OR Ventilated improved pit latrine OR Pit latrine with slab (new). The sufficient living area requirement requires there to be less than 4 people per habitable room in the household's dwelling. Habitable rooms exclude kitchens, bathrooms, and garages. Durability of housing requires the main material of the walls, floor, and roof of the household's dwelling to be finished. The definition of finished materials are as per the latest DHS questionnaire. Some of these may be country specific, but the major categories are standard. In DHS 7, finished floor materials included: parquet or polished wood; vinyl or asphalt strips; ceramic tiles; cement; carpet/rug. In DHS 7, finished wall materials included: cement; stone with lime/cement; bricks; cement blocks; covered adobe; wood planks/shingles. In DHS 7, finished roof materials included: metal/zinc; wood; calamine/cement fibre; ceramic tiles; cement; roofing shingles.
    World Bank Urban 2018 Not rated Not rated 53.90%
    Size of the cheapest, newly built dwelling by a formal developer / contractor in an urban area in square meters
    i
    The size of the cheapest, newly built dwelling by a formal developer / contractor in an urban area in square meters.
    Millard Fuller Foundation Urban 2019
    32m2
    Cost of standard 50kg bag of cement
    i
    The wholesale price of a standard 50kg bag of OPC cement in local currency units. The strength class of the OPC cement should be 32.5N.
    Nigeria Price National 2019
    2,550 NGN$6.73
    Time (in days) from application to completion for dwellings in the main urban city
    i
    The median number of days (inclusive of weekends and public holidays) between the issuance of a building construction permit and the issuance of an occupancy permit for residential dwellings. A building construction permit provides developers / contractors with permission to commence construction on the proposed site / development. An occupancy permit provides certifies the dwelling as habitable.
    CAHF interviews with five developers Abuja 2019
    540
    Total cost of all residential construction permit-related procedures
    i
    The total cost of all permits (in local currency units) required for the construction of a residential dwelling and declaring it fit for occupancy. Assumptions about the developer/contractor, dwelling to be built, and water & sewerage connections: The developer is 100% domestically and privately owned; has five owners, none of whom is a legal entity. Has a licensed architect and a licensed engineer, both registered with the local association of architects or engineers. The developer is not assumed to have any other employees who are technical or licensed experts, such as geological or topographical experts. The developer owns the land on which the dwelling will be built and will sell the dwelling upon its completion. The dwelling will be used for residential purposes only. The dwelling will have a single storey, above ground, with a total constructed area of approximately XX square meters. The single storey will be XX meters high and will be located on a land plot of approximately XX square meters that is 100% owned by the developer. The dwelling is valued at XX times income per capita. The dwelling will have complete architectural and technical plans prepared by a licensed architect. If preparation of the plans requires such steps as obtaining further documentation or getting prior approvals from external agencies, these are counted as procedures. The dwelling will take XX weeks to construct (excluding all delays due to administrative and regulatory requirements). The water and sewerage connections of the dwelling will be XX meters from the existing water source and sewer tap. If there is no water delivery infrastructure in the economy, a borehole will be dug. If there is no sewerage infrastructure, a septic tank in the smallest size available will be installed or built. The water connection for the dwelling will be XX inch in diameter and the sewerage connection for the dwelling will be XX inches in diameter.
    Reall MFF 2018 Not rated Not rated 3,401,200 NGN$8,974.14
    % of households living in dwellings built using durable building materials (walls and roof) that are overcrowded
    i
    The percentage of households living in dwellings where the main material of the walls and roof are finished and the dwelling is overcrowded. The definition of finished materials are as per the latest DHS questionnaire. Some of these may be country specific, but the major categories are standard. An overcrowded dwelling is one where there are more than two people per sleeping room. In DHS 7, finished wall materials included: cement; stone with lime/cement; bricks; cement blocks; covered adobe; wood planks/shingles. In DHS 7, finished roof materials included: metal/zinc; wood; calamine/cement fibre; ceramic tiles; cement; roofing shingles.
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    Number of dwellings completed annually
    i
    The number of new residential units completed per annum for which occupancy permits have been issued.
    - - -
    Gross fixed capital formation of dwellings as % of GDP
    i
    The value of capital invested in the formation of dwellings as a percentage of the country's Gross Domestic Product.
    - - -
    Residential rental sector as a % of GDP
    i
    The value of the rental sector as a percentage of the country's Gross Domestic Product.
    - - -
    Residential construction sector as a % of GDP
    i
    The value of the construction sector as a percentage of the country's Gross Domestic Product.
    - - -
    Is there a body that organises developers / contractors?
    i
    A "Yes" or "No" answer whether or not a body exists that organises developers / contractors.
    - - -
    Number of formal private developers / contractors serving the bottom-end of the market
    i
    The total number of registered private developers or contractors that build dwellings affordable to the bottom-end of the market. Registered private developers / contractors refers to businesses that are privately owned (not owned by government) and have a valid business/operating permit/license. From a buying perspective, affordability for the bottom-end of the market requires the price of the dwellings to be such that the bottom end of the market (calculation methodology to be determined) can afford to purchase it at market borrowing terms or the terms offered by the developer/accessible through the developer. From a rental perspective, affordability for the bottom-end of the market requires the rental price of the dwellings built by the developer / contractor to be such that the monthly rent-to-income ratio of the dwelling does not exceed 30% of bottom end of market household incomes.
    - - -
    Number of people employed in the residential construction sector
    i
    The number of people employed in the residential construction sector as per CAHF's HEVC methodology.
    - - -
    Number of people employed in the residential rental sector
    i
    The number of people employed in the residential rental sector as per CAHF's HEVC methodology.
    - - -
    Number of completed developer built dwellings that are accessible to the bottom-end of the market
    i
    The total dwellings completed in the last calendar year that are affordable to the bottom-end of the market (calculation methodology to be determined). Completed dwellings are dwellings for which occupancy permits have been issued. From a buying perspective, affordability for the bottom-end of the market requires the price of the dwellings to be such that the bottom-end of the market households can afford to purchase it at market borrowing terms or the terms offered by the developer/accessible through the developer. From a rental perspective, affordability for the bottom-end of the market requires the rental price of the dwellings built by the developer / contractor to be such that the monthly rent-to-income ratio of the dwelling does not exceed 30% of the bottom-end of the market household incomes.
    - - -
    Average residential building cost inflation for dwellings over 5 years
    i
    The average annual residential building cost inflation for dwellings over five consecutive years.
    - - -

    Mortgages

    Registered mortgage providers have increased from 34 in 2019 to 35 in 2020, with 22 commercial banks and 7 microfinance banks, improving financial capability in the housing sector ¹. A few commercial banks such as First Bank, UBA, Union Bank, Stanbic IBTC and Access Bank continue to provide home loans that also cover repairs and renovations to Nigerians. The interest rate is fixed for the whole period of the loan.

    In 2019, the mortgage portfolio was at 0.17 percent of GDP with the total outstanding number and value estimated to be 32 260 and ₦269.68 billion (US$749.1 million) respectively. Outside of the government subsidised loan framework, market rate mortgages range from 17 percent to 25 percent per annum. Maximum loan repayment tenors are 10 to 20 years, with lenders demanding a 30 to 50 percent equity contribution ².

    The Federal Mortgage Bank of Nigeria (FMBN) is the most affordable housing finance provider in the country, as a government subsidized window for loans up to ₦15 million (US$38 836). FMBN’s housing loans are available to contributors to the National Housing Fund (NHF) Scheme, a social savings scheme designed to mobilize long-term funds from Nigerian workers, banks, insurance companies and the government to increase access to affordable housing finance. FMBN gives concessionary loans to the Primary Mortgage Banks (PMBs) at a 4 percent interest rate, while the mortgage banks provide loans to qualified workers that contribute to the NHF scheme at 6 percent per annum with payment tenors of up to 30 years ³.

    FMBN’s loans are zero equity contribution for loans under ₦5 million (US$12 945) while only 10 percent equity is required for loans ranging from ₦5 million to ₦15 million (US$38 836). Subscribers can only apply after contributing 2.5 percent of basic monthly salaries for six months. As part of FMBN’s response to COVID-19, the bank has promised to focus a considerable amount of its portfolio to engender affordable housing in the informal sector. To be able to do this, the bank is relying on the Bank Verification Number (BVN) technology (a unique identifier system created by the Central Bank of Nigeria) to guarantee repayments .

    Affordability

    In 2020, the price of cheapest newly built dwelling by Reall partner MFF was estimated to be ₦2.8 million (US$8 040) in an urban area . Under standard financial products, it is estimated that the maximum house price affordable to the households in the Bottom 40% would be NGN 1 946 280 (US$5 588) assuming a 20 percent down payment – if finance could be secured from a financial institution, and an available product could be found to purchase.

    A review of the Roland Igbinoba House Price Index (RI Index) shows that the movement of house prices in the second quarter of 2020 was more erratic than in the first quarter of the same year (Q1 2020) and the same quarter in the previous year (Q2 2019). Average house prices fell in Port Harcourt and Kaduna but were more resilient in Lagos and Abuja. The general poor performance of average house prices in the second quarter of 2020 is largely related to the pandemic’s impact on economic activities in the country.

    Of the 40 indicators in this group, 18 are currently populated.

    Indicator Data Source Aggregation Year Data Quality Data Accessibility Value
    Price of the cheapest, newly built dwelling by a formal developer or contractor
    i
    The price of the cheapest, newly built dwelling by a formal developer or contractor in local currency units.
    Millard Fuller Foundation; Shelter Origins Urban 2019
    2,900,000 NGN$7,651.72
    % of households that own their dwelling
    i
    The share of households that claim to own their dwelling.
    World Bank; Nigeria National Bureau of Statistics National 2018
    62.00%
    DHS Bottom 40 2018
    31.04%
    Typical rental price for cheapest, newly built dwelling by a formal developer or contractor
    i
    The typical rental price per month in local currency units for a dwelling that matches the price and size characteristics provided by the "Price of the cheapest, newly built dwelling by a formal developer / contractor in an urban area in square meters" and "Size of the cheapest, newly built dwelling by a formal developer / contractor in an urban area in square meters" indicators.
    Yearbook Consultant (Calculated) Urban 2018
    188,000 NGN$496.04
    % of households that rent their dwelling
    i
    The share of households that claim to rent their dwelling.
    World Bank; Nigeria National Bureau of Statistics National 2018
    21.80%
    Value of formal housing finance outstanding
    i
    The value of outstanding residential mortgages in local currency units at the end of a calendar year for residential mortgages issued by licensed/registered residential mortgage providers.
    NMRC National 2019
    270,000,000,000 NGN$712,401,055.41
    Value of residential mortgages outstanding as % of GDP
    i
    The value of outstanding residential mortgages in local currency units at the end of a calendar year as a share of nominal GDP in local currency units.
    NMRC National 2019
    0.19%
    % of the adult population that borrowed formally
    i
    The share of individuals aged 15+ that borrowed from formal financial institutions. The definition of formal financial institution is as used by the Global Findex database encompasses all types of financial institutions that offer deposit, checking, and savings accounts (including banks, credit unions, Microfinance institutions, and post offices) and that fall under prudential regulation by a government body. The definition does not include nonbank financial institutions such as pension funds, retirement accounts, insurance companies, or equity holdings such as stocks.
    EFInA National 2018
    2.57%
    Income distribution thresholds
    i
    This indicator contains the income levels (in local currency units) that cuts the income distribution of the country's into deciles.
    C-GIDD National 2019
    Populated - Click left arrow to view
    Does a foreclosure policy exist?
    i
    Asks whether or not a foreclosure procedure exists.
    The Guardian National 2020 Not rated Not rated Yes
    Number of residential mortgages outstanding
    i
    The number of residential mortgages outstanding on the books of registered/licensed residential mortgage providers.
    NMRC National 2019
    32,260
    Number of end-user finance loans disbursed or mobilised for purchases of dwellings in the previous calendar year
    i
    The total number of end-user finance loans that a developer/contractor disbursed to clients (directly or indirectly) in a calendar year for the purposes of purchasing a completed dwelling. Direct disbursement includes all loans where the developer provides the financing directly. Indirect disbursement includes all loans where the developer has brokered a formal arrangement with a financial institution so that the financial institution can provide end-user financing to the developer's clients.
    Reall MFF 2019 Not rated Not rated 39
    Non-performing residential mortgages as a % of total outstanding residential mortgages
    i
    The ratio of non-performing residential mortgages to total outstanding residential mortgages (volume not value) at the end of the financial year.
    Central Bank of Nigeria, NMRC National 2019
    59.69%
    Does an operational mortgage refinancing company exist?
    i
    Asks whether or not a mortgage refinance company exists and is operational in the country.
    NMRC National 2019 Not rated Not rated Yes
    Number of residential mortgage providers
    i
    The number of residential mortgage providers. Each provider should be registered with, or licensed by, the Central Bank/financial regulator and one of their financing offerings must be residential mortgage loans.
    Central Bank of Nigeria National 2020
    57
    Prevailing residential mortgage rates
    i
    The minimum and maximum interest rates on residential mortgages.
    Federal Mortgage Bank of Nigeria; Central Bank of Nigeria National 2020
    21.00%
    % of households that can afford the cheapest, newly built dwelling by a formal developer or contractor
    i
    The share of households that can afford to buy the cheapest, newly built dwelling by a formal developer or contractor based on assumptions around financing terms and the instalment to income ratio. These assumptions are as follows: (1) the mortgage rate is equal to the maximum residential mortgage rate (see indicator Maximum residential mortgage rate); (2) the mortgage term is equal to the maximum mortgage term (see indicator Maximum residential mortgage term), (3) the LTV is equal to the maximum LTV on a residential mortgage (see indicator Maximum LTV on a residential mortgage), (4) the instalment to income ratio is equal to the maximum instalment to income ratio (see indicator Maximum instalment to income ratio). This indicator assumes that households have the savings required to meet the LTV criteria, the repayment schedule is at the beginning of the month, the affordability relates to the annuity mortgage (not interest only), there are no balloon repayments.
    C-GIDD; CBN; CAHF; NMRC Urban 2019
    53.62%
    C-GIDD; CBN; CAHF; NMRC; DHS Bottom 40 2019
    0.00%
    Maximum dwelling price affordable to B40 households based on market mortgage finance terms
    i
    The maximum dwelling price affordable to Bottom 40 households based on market mortgage finance terms. This indicator assumes that Bottom 40 households have the savings required to meet the LTV criteria. The market mortgage financing terms are as follows: (1) the mortgage rate is equal to the maximum residential mortgage rate (see indicator 'Maximum residential mortgage rate'), (2) the mortgage term is equal to the maximum mortgage term (see indicator 'Maximum residential mortgage term'), (3) the LTV is equal to the maximum LTV on a residential mortgage (see indicator 'Maximum LTV on a residential mortgage'), (4) the instalment to income ratio is equal to the maximum instalment to income ratio (see indicator 'Maximum instalment to income ratio'). This indicator assumes that households have the savings required to meet the LTV criteria.
    C-GIDD; CBN; CAHF; NMRC; DHS Bottom 40 2019
    1,946,280 NGN$5,135.30
    Maximum dwelling rent affordable to B40 households
    i
    The maximum dwelling rental affordable to Bottom 40 households based on the maximum installment to income ratio.
    C-GIDD Bottom 40 2019 Not rated Not rated 34,031 NGN$89.79
    Average inflation for dwellings over 5 years
    i
    The average annual percentage change in the sales prices of completed residential dwellings over 5 years.
    - - -
    % of households with female or joint ownership of a dwelling
    i
    The share of households where a female member of the households owns their main dwelling or any other dwelling either outright or jointly with someone else.
    - - -
    % of households with female ownership of a dwelling
    i
    The share of households where a female member of the households owns their main dwelling or any other dwelling outright.
    - - -
    World Bank DBI equal access to property rights index ranking: Africa
    i
    The rank of the country's score on the World Bank's equal access to property rights index within Africa. The equal access to property rights index has two components: (1) Whether unmarried men and unmarried women have equal ownership rights to property. A score of -1 is assigned if there are unequal ownership rights to property; 0 if there is equality. (2) Whether married men and married women have equal ownership rights to property. A score of -1 is assigned if there are unequal ownership rights to property; 0 if there is equality. Ownership rights cover the ability to manage, control, administer, access, encumber, receive, dispose of and transfer property. Each restriction is considered if there is a differential treatment for men and women in the law considering the default marital property regime. For customary land systems, equality is assumed unless there is a general legal provision stating a differential treatment. The index ranges from -2 to 0, with higher values indicating greater inclusiveness of property rights.
    - - -
    World Bank DBI equal access to property rights index ranking: Global
    i
    The global rank of the country's score on the World Bank's equal access to property rights index. The equal access to property rights index has two components: (1) Whether unmarried men and unmarried women have equal ownership rights to property. A score of -1 is assigned if there are unequal ownership rights to property; 0 if there is equality. (2) Whether married men and married women have equal ownership rights to property. A score of -1 is assigned if there are unequal ownership rights to property; 0 if there is equality. Ownership rights cover the ability to manage, control, administer, access, encumber, receive, dispose of and transfer property. Each restriction is considered if there is a differential treatment for men and women in the law considering the default marital property regime. For customary land systems, equality is assumed unless there is a general legal provision stating a differential treatment. The index ranges from -2 to 0, with higher values indicating greater inclusiveness of property rights.
    - - -
    Number of formal estate agents
    i
    The total number of registered real estate agents that are subject to regulatory oversight.
    - - -
    Resale transactions as a % of all residential transactions
    i
    The number of residential resale transactions as a share of all residential transactions. A resale refers to any home that has been previously owned. In other words, all residential properties other than newly constructed ones.
    - - -
    Number of new residential transfers
    i
    The total number of residential transactions in a given calendar year where the dwelling is classified as a new build.
    - - -
    Number of residential resale transactions
    i
    The total number of residential resale transactions in a given calendar year. A resale refers to any home that has been previously owned. In other words, all residential properties other than newly constructed ones.
    - - -
    Number of residential transfers financed with a mortgage
    i
    The total number of residential property transfers that were financed with a mortgage.
    - - -
    Does government or industry publish any data on land prices in the main urban centre?
    i
    Asks whether or not there are any publications by government and/or industry that contain data on land prices in the main urban centre.
    - - -
    World Bank DBI land dispute resolution index ranking: Africa
    i
    The rank of the country's score on the World Bank's land dispute resolution index within Africa. The land dispute resolution index assesses the legal framework for immovable property registration and the accessibility of dispute resolution mechanisms. The index has eight components: (1) Whether the law requires that all property sale transactions be registered at the immovable property registry to make them opposable to third parties. A score of 1.5 is assigned if yes; 0 if no. (2) Whether the formal system of immovable property registration is subject to a guarantee. A score of 0.5 is assigned if either a state or private guarantee over immovable property registration is required by law; 0 if no such guarantee is required. (3) Whether there is a specific, out-of-court compensation mechanism to cover for losses incurred by parties who engaged in good faith in a property transaction based on erroneous information certified by the immovable property registry. A score of 0.5 is assigned if yes; 0 if no. (4) Whether the legal system requires verification of the legal validity of the documents (such as the sales, transfer or conveyance deed) necessary for a property transaction. A score of 0.5 is assigned if there is a review of legal validity, either by the registrar or by a professional (such as a notary or a lawyer); 0 if there is no review. (5) Whether the legal system requires verification of the identity of the parties to a property transaction. A score of 0.5 is assigned if there is verification of identity, either by the registrar or by a professional (such as a notary or a lawyer); 0 if there is no verification. (6) Whether there is a national database to verify the accuracy of government-issued identity documents. A score of 1 is assigned if such a national database is available; 0 if not. (7) How much time it takes to obtain a decision from a court of first instance (without an appeal) in a standard land dispute between two local businesses over tenure rights worth 50 times income per capita and located in the largest business city. A score of 3 is assigned if it takes less than one year; 2 if it takes between one and two years; 1 if it takes between two and three years; 0 if it takes more than three years. (8) Whether there are publicly available statistics on the number of land disputes at the economy level in the first instance court. For the 11 economies where the data are also collected for the second largest business city, city-level statistics are taken into account. A score of 0.5 is assigned if statistics are published about land disputes in the economy in the past calendar year; 0 if no such statistics are made publicly available. The index ranges from 0 to 8, with higher values indicating greater protection against land disputes.
    - - -
    World Bank DBI land dispute resolution index ranking: Global
    i
    The global rank of the country's score on the World Bank's land dispute resolution index. The land dispute resolution index assesses the legal framework for immovable property registration and the accessibility of dispute resolution mechanisms. The index has eight components: (1) Whether the law requires that all property sale transactions be registered at the immovable property registry to make them opposable to third parties. A score of 1.5 is assigned if yes; 0 if no. (2) Whether the formal system of immovable property registration is subject to a guarantee. A score of 0.5 is assigned if either a state or private guarantee over immovable property registration is required by law; 0 if no such guarantee is required. (3) Whether there is a specific, out-of-court compensation mechanism to cover for losses incurred by parties who engaged in good faith in a property transaction based on erroneous information certified by the immovable property registry. A score of 0.5 is assigned if yes; 0 if no. (4) Whether the legal system requires verification of the legal validity of the documents (such as the sales, transfer or conveyance deed) necessary for a property transaction. A score of 0.5 is assigned if there is a review of legal validity, either by the registrar or by a professional (such as a notary or a lawyer); 0 if there is no review. (5) Whether the legal system requires verification of the identity of the parties to a property transaction. A score of 0.5 is assigned if there is verification of identity, either by the registrar or by a professional (such as a notary or a lawyer); 0 if there is no verification. (6) Whether there is a national database to verify the accuracy of government-issued identity documents. A score of 1 is assigned if such a national database is available; 0 if not. (7) How much time it takes to obtain a decision from a court of first instance (without an appeal) in a standard land dispute between two local businesses over tenure rights worth 50 times income per capita and located in the largest business city. A score of 3 is assigned if it takes less than one year; 2 if it takes between one and two years; 1 if it takes between two and three years; 0 if it takes more than three years. (8) Whether there are publicly available statistics on the number of land disputes at the economy level in the first instance court. For the 11 economies where the data are also collected for the second largest business city, city-level statistics are taken into account. A score of 0.5 is assigned if statistics are published about land disputes in the economy in the past calendar year; 0 if no such statistics are made publicly available. The index ranges from 0 to 8, with higher values indicating greater protection against land disputes.
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    Value of formal housing finance issued per annum
    i
    The value of residential mortgages issued in a calendar year by licensed/registered residential mortgage providers in local currency units.
    - - -
    Mortgages as a % of properties
    i
    The total number of outstanding residential mortgages as a share of residential properties that have a title deed
    - - -
    Maximum residential mortgage term
    i
    The maximum term in years on residential mortgages offered by registered/licensed mortgage providers.
    - - -
    Highest LTV on a residential mortgage
    i
    The regulatory maximum residential mortgage loan-to-value (LTV) ratio set by the central bank. If there is no maximum residential mortgage LTV set by the central bank then use the maximum residential LTV accepted/offered by registered/licensed residential mortgage providers.
    - - -
    Is there a regulatory cap on residential mortgage interest rates?
    i
    Asks whether or not regulation exists that places a ceiling on the residential mortgage interest rate
    - - -
    Number of residential mortgage providers that serve the bottom-end of the market
    i
    The number of residential mortgage providers. Each provider should be registered with, or licensed by, the Central Bank/financial regulator and one of their financing offerings must be residential mortgage loans.
    - - -
    Number of residential mortgages issued per annum
    i
    The number of residential mortgages issued in a calendar year by licensed/registered residential mortgage providers.
    - - -
    Number of residential mortgages or formal loans provided to the bottom-end of the market
    i
    The number of residential mortgages issued in a calendar year by licensed/registered residential mortgage providers plus the number of or other formal loans issued by licensed financial service providers within a calendar year where the borrower is from the bottom-end of the market.
    - - -
    % of households that can afford cheapest partner dwelling
    i
    The share of households that can afford to but the cheapest partner dwelling based on assumptions around financing terms. These assumptions are as follows: (1) the mortgage rate is equal to the maximum residential mortgage rate (see indicator 'Maximum residential mortgage rate'); (2) the mortgage term is equal to the maximum mortgage term (see indicator 'Maximum residential mortgage term'), (3) the LTV is equal to the maximum LTV on a residential mortgage (see indicator 'Maximum LTV on a residential mortgage'), (4) the instalment to income ratio is equal to the maximum instalment to income ratio (see indicator 'Maximum instalment to income ratio'). This indicator assumes that households have the savings required to meet the LTV criteria.
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    With an increasing demand for adequate and affordable housing in Nigeria’s main urban areas, there have been calls to explore urban regeneration or slum upgrading initiatives that address the urban infrastructure and services challenge. According to the Nigerian National Bureau of Statistics, households only allocated about 5 percent to dwelling improvements in Nigeria and this is largely attributed to the lack of access to affordable credit. Various proponents argue that skills development and training of local construction and building artisans will improve the overall construction and maintenance of housing in urban areas ¹.

    Despite the various interventions in the microfinance sector, there are calls for addressing bottlenecks that hamper cooperative housing. Measures proposed by various stakeholders include, but are not limited to, setting up institutional support systems for registered housing cooperatives, enhancing access to land documentation and the need for affordable finance across the value chain.

    Of the 6 indicators in this group, 3 are currently populated.

    Indicator Data Source Aggregation Year Data Quality Data Accessibility Value
    Improvements to dwellings as a % of household expenditure
    i
    Household expenditure on improvements to dwellings in current local currency units as a share of total household expenditure in current local currency units. Expenditure on improvements to dwellings include: additions and alterations; labour and material for improvements, additions, and alterations; services for improvements, additions, and alterations; building materials for improvements, additions, and alterations; security structures.
    Nigeria National Bureau of Statistics National 2019
    5.03%
    % of households without access to basic waste collection services
    i
    The share of households without access to basic waste collection services. Basic waste collection services are defined as a reliable waste collection service, including both formal municipal and informal sector services. The collection service must be either door-to-door or deposit into a community container. The collection includes recycling as well as for treatment and disposal (so includes e.g. collection of recyclables by itinerant waste buyers). The waste must be collection must be reliable (i.e. regular) - the frequency will depend on country/municipality specific conditions and on any pre-separation of the waste.
    Nigeria National Bureau of Statistics National 2016
    59.80%
    Number of microfinance providers
    i
    The number of registered microfinance providers subject to prudential regulation/government oversight.
    Central Bank of Nigeria National 2018
    1,013
    Number of approved building permit applications for improvements to residential properties
    i
    The number of approved permit applications for improvements to residential properties.
    - - -
    Number of residential properties that are rated for property taxes in the main urban centre
    i
    The number of residential properties that are rated for property taxes in the main urban centres
    - - -
    Value of outstanding microfinance loans
    i
    The value of microfinance loans outstanding in current local currency units.
    - - -

    To deal with the chronic issue of access to affordable housing in the country, the Federal Government created the Family Homes Fund (FHF) in 2018 to provide accessible financing for affordable housing projects that align closely with the aspiration of the UN Sustainable Development Goals to foster sustainable cities and communities. As part of the transaction structure, FHF is the loan obligor and works with the private sector with funding of ₦200 Billion (US$519 million) from the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) at a subsidised lending rate of not more than 5 percent per annum. The tenor of the funding is three years and guaranteed by the Federal Ministry of Finance. This transaction presents a significant opportunity for local manufacturing and building materials entrepreneurs and professionals to enter the housing sector and provide a more cost effective supply of materials and finishings that are typically imported, and which contribute to the high cost of construction. It is expected that the planned 300 000 houses provided for under the ESP would be delivered by FHF and spread across the 36 states in the country, with the ability to generate 1.5 million jobs by 2025 ¹. FHF has partnered with Dangote Cement, which has committed to supplying cement across Family Homes sites at heavily discounted prices ².

    Another significant route to improving the state of housing supply in the country is the Lagos State Rent to Own approach which began in 2016. At take-off of the scheme, Lagos State had 4 355 completed housing units. Of this number, the state has granted affordable housing for 1 230 beneficiaries ³.

    There are various initiatives underway to strengthen the regulatory environment. The Nigerian Mortgage Refinance Company (NMRC) is vocally advocating for the Model Mortgage Foreclosure Law (MMFL). The law is aimed at eliminating the barrier of foreclosure disincentives for investors. To date, six states have signed the law and another six are currently in the pipeline.

    Although there is a law regulating the practice of real estate in Lagos state, currently there are over thirty thousand unregulated practitioners. These include developers and mostly estate agents responsible for lettings, resulting in rampant fraudulent practices in the state, especially within the low-income bracket. More recently though, many state governments including Lagos and Oyo states have made bold steps towards reviewing and regulating real estate transactions in Nigeria. Lagos state has created the Lagos State Real Estate Regulatory Agency (LASRERA) for the regulation and improved documentation of real estate activities. The vision of the state is to provide an investment friendly and transparent housing sector that safeguards the interests of all stakeholders. LASRERA has created a web portal for issuance and renewal of licenses and will maintain a register of licensed estate agents, and collate data on property transactions. The back-end dashboard of the LASRERA portal has big data that covers all tenancies in the state, upcoming housing projects, and sales/ lease transactions.

    Oyo state has launched a digitized Certificate of Occupancy issuance platform called the Oyo State Home Owners Charter (OYHOC) scheme. OYHOC makes the processing and collection of Certificates of Occupancy faster, easier and affordable, and the improved system will generate Certificates of Occupancy that ease authenticity of confirmation. In addition, the scheme facilitates property documentation on a government digital database for ease of confirmation and transfer, thus making the use of properties as collateral for any financial transactions easier .

    In 2020, Nigeria’s score in the World Bank’s Ease of Doing Business report increased to 56.9 percent, from 52.9 percent in 2019. This ranks the country at 131 out of 190, an improvement from 146th position in 2019. Notably, there was greater improvement in dealing with construction permits in Nigeria as the country ranks 55 in 2020 compared to 149 in 2019. However, Nigeria currently ranks 15th in getting credit, moving three steps downward from 2019’s rank. The country is still lagging in registering properties, with a rank of 183 out of 190. Nigeria came in last position amongst comparator economies like Kenya, South Africa and Uganda.

    Of the 6 indicators in this group, 2 are currently populated.

    Indicator Data Source Aggregation Year Data Quality Data Accessibility Value
    Human development index (HDI) country ranking: Global
    i
    The ranking of the country's Human Development Index Score globally. The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: a long and healthy life, access to knowledge and a decent standard of living. The HDI is the geometric mean of normalized indices for each of the three dimensions.
    UNDP: Human Development Reports National 2017 Not rated Not rated 157
    Ease of doing business index rank: Global
    i
    The ranking of the country's Ease of Doing Business Score globally. The ease of doing business score measures an economys performance with respect to a measure of regulatory best practice across the entire sample of 41 indicators for 10 Doing Business topics (the employing workers and contracting with the government indicators are excluded). See https://www.doingbusiness.org/en/methodology for a detailed description of the methodology.
    World Bank National 2020 Not rated Not rated 131
    Human development index (HDI) country ranking: Africa
    i
    The ranking of the country's Human Development Index Score within Africa. The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: a long and healthy life, access to knowledge and a decent standard of living. The HDI is the geometric mean of normalized indices for each of the three dimensions.
    - - -
    Ease of doing business index rank: Africa
    i
    The ranking of the country's Ease of Doing Business Score within Africa. The ease of doing business score measures an economys performance with respect to a measure of regulatory best practice across the entire sample of 41 indicators for 10 Doing Business topics (the employing workers and contracting with the government indicators are excluded). See https://www.doingbusiness.org/en/methodology for a detailed description of the methodology.
    - - -
    Corruption perceptions index rank: Africa
    i
    The Corruption Perceptions Index aggregates data from a number of different sources that provide perceptions by business people and country experts of the level of corruption in the public sector.
    - - -
    Corruption perceptions index rank: Global
    i
    The Corruption Perceptions Index aggregates data from a number of different sources that provide perceptions by business people and country experts of the level of corruption in the public sector.
    - - -

    In April 2020, as part of the country’s plan to ameliorate the effect of the pandemic, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) approved a ₦1 313.2 billion (US$3.4 billion) emergency facility to the Central Bank of Nigeria to help mitigate the impact of COVID-19 ¹. A World Bank report in December 2020 projected that Nigeria’s gross domestic product (GDP) contracted by about 4 percent in 2020 and will grow modestly by 1.1 percent in 2021 ².

    Nigeria’s biggest revenue earner, the oil sector, recorded a 6.63 percent (year-on-year) contraction in Q2 2020, indicating a decrease of 13.80 percentage points relative to the rate recorded in the corresponding quarter of 2019 ³. The downfall of the global crude oil price immensely contributed to the decline in economic growth of the country. In the second quarter of 2020, the unemployment rate was reported to be 27.1 percent compared to 23.1 percent reported in 2019 . The underemployment rate also rose from 20.1 percent in Q3 2018 to 28.6 percent in Q2 2020 .

    According to the National Bureau of Statistics, almost 83 million people live below the country’s poverty line of ₦137,430 ($381.75) per year . The World Bank notes that advancing reforms that enhance Nigeria’s economic resilience will contribute to the improvement of Nigeria’s growth prospects . Developers have argued that increased government investment into housing construction would significantly stimulate the economy and create more employment opportunities .

    Of the 14 indicators in this group, 10 are currently populated.

    Indicator Data Source Aggregation Year Data Quality Data Accessibility Value
    GDP growth rate
    i
    The annual percentage change in the value of real GDP.
    World Bank National 2018 Not rated Not rated 2.14%
    Unemployment rate
    i
    The narrow unemployment rate. The narrow unemployed are those of working age that are without work (i.e. have not been classified as employed); are currently available for work (either paid employment or self-employment during the reference period); and are seeking work i.e. have taken specific steps in a specified recent period to seek paid employment or self-employment. The narrow labour force are those of working age that are classified as employed as well as the narrow unemployed. The narrow unemployment rate is given by: (narrow unemployed)/(narrow labour force).
    World Bank National 2017 Not rated Not rated 8.39%
    % of population below national poverty line
    i
    The percentage of the population living below the national poverty lines. National estimates are based on population-weighted subgroup estimates from household surveys.
    World Bank National 2017 Not rated Not rated 45.67%
    GDP per capita
    i
    The value of GDP in current local currency units divided by the size of the population.
    World Bank National 2018 Not rated Not rated 659,159 NGN$1,739.21
    Gini coefficient index
    i
    Gini index measures the extent to which the distribution of income (or, in some cases, consumption expenditure) among individuals or households within an economy deviates from a perfectly equal distribution. A Lorenz curve plots the cumulative percentages of total income received against the cumulative number of recipients, starting with the poorest individual or household. The Gini index measures the area between the Lorenz curve and a hypothetical line of absolute equality, expressed as a percentage of the maximum area under the line. Thus a Gini index of 0 represents perfect equality, while an index of 100 implies perfect inequality.
    World Bank National 2018 Not rated Not rated 43
    Yield on 2-year government bonds
    i
    The yield on government bonds/bills that are set to mature in 2 years.
    World Government Bonds National 2020 Not rated Not rated 4.93%
    Yield on 10-year government bonds
    i
    The yield on government bonds/bills that are set to mature in 10 years.
    World Government Bonds National 2020 Not rated Not rated 8.48%
    USD Exchange rate (1 USD = x LCU)
    i
    The number of local currency units per USD at the end of the year.
    Central Bank of Nigeria National 2020 Not rated Not rated 379
    PPP conversion factor for private consumption
    i
    Purchasing power parity (PPP) conversion factor is a spatial price deflator and currency converter that controls for price level differences between countries, thereby allowing volume comparisons of gross domestic product (GDP) and its expenditure components. This conversion factor is for household final consumption expenditure.
    World Bank National 2018 Not rated Not rated 110
    % of individuals aged 15-49 that have not worked in the past 12 months
    i
    The percentage of individuals aged 15-49 that have not worked in the past 12 months and are not currently attending school.
    DHS; World Bank Bottom 40 2018
    28.74%
    GDP per capita in current local currency units growth rate
    i
    The annual percentage growth rate of GDP per capita based on constant local currency.
    - - -
    Inflation rate (CPI)
    i
    The annual percentage change in the general price level.
    - - -
    % of females aged 15-49 that have not worked in the past 12 months
    i
    The percentage of females aged 15-49 that have not worked in the past 12 months and are not currently attending school.
    - - -
    Government construction of dwellings and serviced stands as a % of national budget
    i
    The share of the government's budget (actual expenditure, not estimated expenditure) allocated to the construction of residential dwellings.
    - - -

    In 2019, Nigeria’s total population exceeded 200 million people, and for the first time more Nigerians lived in urban areas than in rural areas. With an estimated population growth rate of 2.56 percent, the country’s population is projected to increase to 263 million in 2030 and 401 million in 2050 ¹. The proportion of the population that is expected to be urbanised will increase to 59 percent by 2030 and 72 percent by 2050. According to the Nigeria National Bureau of Statistics, the country has a young population with more than 54 percent of all males and more than 51 percent of all females being younger than 20 years of age.

    UN-Habitat estimates that 58.8 percent of the urban population is living in slums, signifying huge demand for affordable and adequate housing with basic infrastructure in urban areas. The challenge of housing in Nigeria is largely evident in the absorptive capacity of the market, which is majorly influenced by the affordability of mortgages and housing units.

    Of the 7 indicators in this group, all are populated.

    Indicator Data Source Aggregation Year Data Quality Data Accessibility Value
    Number of households
    i
    The total number of households. A household consists of one or more people who live in the same dwelling and share meals.
    C-GIDD National 2019 Not rated Not rated 41,746,424
    C-GIDD Urban 2019
    22,229,694
    Average household size
    i
    The average number of household members. A household consists of one or more people who live in the same dwelling and share meals.
    DHS National 2018
    4.35
    DHS Bottom 40 2018
    4.79
    Population size
    i
    The size of the population.
    World Bank National 2017 Not rated Not rated 190,873,311
    World Bank Bottom 40 2018 Not rated Not rated 78,349,896
    United Nations Abuja 2018 Not rated Not rated 13,463,000
    Population growth rate
    i
    The annual percentage change in the size of the population.
    World Bank National 2018 Not rated Not rated 2.59%
    World Bank Urban 2018 Not rated Not rated 4.24%
    Population pyramid
    i
    A collection of data points that shows the distribution of various age groups in a population, broken down by sex, for a given year.
    PopulationPyramid.net National 2019 Not rated Not rated Populated
    DHS; World Bank Bottom 40 2018
    Populated
    Country income pyramid
    i
    A collection of data points that shows the number of households whose total annual income falls within different brackets.
    C-GIDD National 2019
    Populated
    List of main urban centres
    i
    The names of urban centres that are of interest in a specific country.
    CAHF National 2018 Not rated Not rated Lagos, Kano, Ibadan, Kaduna,Port-Harcourt, Benin City, Maiduguri, Zaria, Aba, Jos

    Documents

    Nigeria MSI Country Profile

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    Nigeria Data Landscape Report

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    MSI Metadata Document

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